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Domagoj Coric and Tim Adamson

degenerative disc disease adjacent to fusions. 20 These radiographic changes may lead to a higher incidence of symptomatic segmental degeneration, necessitating further fusion surgery. 9 , 29 Rates of symptomatic adjacent level degenerative disc disease range from 10 to 25%. 13 , 19 Recently, spine surgery has seen parallel interest and development in the areas of motion preservation and minimally invasive surgery. Spinal arthroplasty offers the practical advantage of preservation of motion as well as the theoretical benefit of decreased adjacent level surgery. 6 , 10

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Justin S. Smith, Alfred T. Ogden and Richard G. Fessler

Ultimately, these effects can lead to paraspinal muscle atrophy, scarring, and decreased extensor strength and endurance, and can contribute to increased postoperative and long-term pain. 24 , 35 , 46 , 48 , 52 , 60 , 61 , 69 , 79 In an effort to mitigate the morbidities associated with conventional open spine procedures, recent advances in minimal access technologies have led to the application of minimally invasive approaches to all regions of the spine for decompression, arthrodesis, and instrumentation. Until recently, the vast majority of advancements in minimally

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Mauricio Mandel, Carlo Emanuel Petito, Rafael Tutihashi, Wellingson Paiva, Suzana Abramovicz Mandel, Fernando Campos Gomes Pinto, Almir Ferreira de Andrade, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira and Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo

with an iPhone (Apple Inc.) by the addition of a specially designed adaptor. To our knowledge, this is the first such study in the medical literature and may represent a low-cost and more intuitive solution for minimally invasive procedures in neurosurgery. Methods Between October 2010 and July 2015, a total of 42 patients with various neuropathological disorders (cavernomas, anterior circulation brain aneurysms, hydrocephalus, subdural hematomas [SDHs], and contusional and spontaneous intracerebral hematomas) underwent minimally invasive surgery performed with the

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Namath S. Hussain and Mick J. Perez-Cruet

W ith recent advances in technique and access instrumentation, minimally invasive spine surgery has ushered in a renaissance in spine care. Surgeons are becoming more comfortable with these procedures, and industry-surgeon collaborations have provided a plethora of new products to make surgery safer for patients and improve patient outcomes. As more patients receive minimally invasive spine surgery treatments, stronger long-term outcome data are supporting this change in practice pattern. 20 , 21 Patient outcomes are improved compared with traditional

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Emun Abdu, Daniel F. Hanley and David W. Newell

, one of the outcomes from the 2007 NIH consensus statement was that minimally invasive techniques to evacuate clots seemed to be a promising area for further investigation based on favorable results in various studies and case series. 6 Minimally invasive therapeutic modalities have become more attractive in treating ICH over craniotomy for various reasons, including short operative time, the potential for performing them at the bedside, and minimizing the potential exacerbation of secondary brain trauma through the avoidance of larger corticotomies and brain

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The evolution of minimally invasive spine surgery

JNSPG 75th Anniversary Invited Review Article

Jang W. Yoon and Michael Y. Wang

T he field of spinal surgery has advanced significantly over the past half century. Along with the proliferation of techniques and technologies in general, there has been a concomitant movement to reduce the morbidity of surgery. Minimally invasive surgical (MIS) approaches have thus been popularized, with its core principles being the following: 1) to minimize the collateral damage, 2) to preserve the normal anatomy, and 3) to reduce the overall stress to the patient, all while achieving the same surgical goals as open surgery. The roots in minimally invasive

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Paul A. Gardner, Pawel G. Ochalski and John J. Moossy

thoracoscopic approach can be complicated by the development of a hemothorax and pneumothorax, with an incidence rate ranging from 1 to 10%. 3 , 8 , 18 Thus, this procedure may not be safe for all patients, especially those who are morbidly obese or have severe pulmonary disease. 14 In this paper, we present our experience performing a dorsal approach for upper thoracic sympathectomy using minimally invasive muscle-splitting techniques adopted from spine procedures (tubular dilation for working port access 16 ) and assisted by endoscopic visualization. We have been

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David M. Benglis Jr., James D. Guest and Michael Y. Wang

reason, a minimal access approach to cervical laminoplasty may be desirable. Minimally invasive posterior approaches to the cervical spine have recently been developed for the treatment of foraminal stenosis and lateral disc herniations. 3 , 22 Building on initial experiences with tubular dilator retractors used for lumbar microdiscectomy, several groups have begun applying this technique for cervical foraminotomy. In a landmark paper, Adamson 1 reviewed data from a series of 100 patients treated in this manner. He reported that 97% of the patients experienced good

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Hamad I. Farhat, Brian Hood, Steven Vanni and Allan D. Levi

active extravasation from the T-12 diverticula. The patient elected to undergo conservative treatment, and a lumbar epidural blood patch was performed. Unfortunately, this patch failed to relieve his positional headache, and 2 additional blood patches were performed without improvement. Operation The patient underwent a minimally invasive approach to the right T-12 nerve root via a paramedian muscle-splitting incision using the METRx tubular retractor system (Medtronic Sofamor Danek). After hemilaminotomy a meningeal diverticulum was found; on inspection no

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Ziev B. Moses, Rory R. Mayer, Benjamin A. Strickland, Ryan M. Kretzer, Jean-Paul Wolinsky, Ziya L. Gokaslan and Ali A. Baaj

P arallel advancements in image-guidance technology and minimal access techniques continue to push the frontiers of minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS). While traditional intraoperative imaging (radiography, C-arm fluoroscopy) remains widely used, newer platforms, such as 3D-fluoroscopy, cone-beam CT, and intraoperative CT/MRI, have enabled safer, more accurate instrumentation placement with less radiation exposure to the surgeon and operative staff. The advent of such techniques, including cone-beam CT, boasts near real-time image reconstruction in