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Joëlle Veziers, Maurice Lesourd, Christophe Jollivet, Claudia Montero-Menei, Jean-Pierre Benoit and Philippe Menei

vivo or in vivo gene therapy. 2, 14 We first developed this approach to deliver a radiosensitizing anticancer drug (5-fluorouracil) in brain tumors. 3, 15 This treatment, evaluated in a phase I pilot study, gave promising results, which led to a multicenter randomized clinical trial that is now ongoing. 18 Drug delivery by this approach requires the implanted microspheres to be totally biocompatible with the brain. Moreover, in the case of delivery of neurotrophic factors for neuroprotection and/or regenerative purposes, the implantation must be nontraumatic and

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Michael G. Muhonen, Scott C. Robertson, Jeffrey S. Gerdes and Christopher M. Loftus

administration of fluid and drugs. Blood was obtained via a brachial artery catheter to measure arterial blood gas levels. The baseline pH measured 7.32 ± 0.03 mm Hg, PaO 2 was 259 ± 5 mm Hg, and PaCO 2 was 39.8 ± 1.3 mm Hg, and none of the values changed significantly during interventions. A No. 7 French pigtail catheter was introduced into the left ventricle via a femoral artery for injection of radioactive microspheres used to measure CBF. 4, 21 Isotopes were randomly selected from a stock pool ( 153 Gd, 141 Ce, 113 Sn, 95 Nb, 85 Sr, 46 Sc), and the order of

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Scott C. Robertson, Nicholas M. Wetjen, Bradley J. Beer and Christopher M. Loftus

injection of radioactive microspheres to measure CBF. 4, 23 Isotopes were randomly selected from a stock pool (cerium-141, tin-113, niobium-95, strontium-85, cobalt-57, and scandium-46), and the order of injection was randomized. To measure flow, 10 6 microspheres (15 µm in diameter) were injected into the left ventricle and flushed with 5 ml of saline over 5 seconds. The number of spheres was sufficient to ensure approximately 400 spheres per tissue sample. Reference samples were withdrawn from the brachial and femoral arteries at 2.06 ml/minute for a total of 2

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Patrik Gabikian, Betty M. Tyler, Irma Zhang, Khan W. Li, Henry Brem and Kevin A. Walter

putative radiosensitizer. 9 , 19 In this study, we demonstrate that not only is paclitaxel effective as a single agent against glioma in the form of a controlled-release polymer, but it also functions as a radiosensitizer for glioma cell lines in vitro. This sensitivity correlates with paclitaxel's effect of G 2 -M cell cycle arrest. More importantly, we report that paclitaxel incorporated into a novel polyphosphoester (PPE): polilactofate microsphere formulation acts synergistically with radiation treatment (XRT) to prolong survival in a rodent model of malignant

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Anne Sapin, Anne Clavreul, Emmanuel Garcion, Jean-Pierre Benoit and Philippe Menei

surfaces can present these antigens for lymphocyte activation. 31 They can also be taken up by antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells via the phagocytic route, leading to the presentation of a pattern of antigens specific to immunologically effective cells. 50 Among the various particulate systems, biodegradable PLGA microspheres are noteworthy. Indeed, PLGA microspheres are well-characterized biocompatible devices 27 , 52 that are approved for clinical applications 28 and allow sustained drug release. 3 We were interested in testing the potential of a

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Studies of experimental cervical spinal cord transection

Part IV: Effects of cervical spinal cord transection on myocardial blood flow in anesthetized dogs

Phillip A. Tibbs, Byron Young, Edward P. Todd, R. G. McAllister Jr. and Steve Hubbard

Beckman type R411 dynagraph recorder, † for repeated blood gas sampling, and for collection of microsphere reference specimens. Arterial pO 2 , pCO 2 , and pH were measured at intervals and maintained within a normal range by adjustments of tidal volume and ventilatory rate. Intravenous fluids and supplementary pentobarbital were administered through a femoral venous cannula. Body temperature was monitored continuously with a model 46-TUC Telethermometer, ‡ and normothermia was maintained by heat lamps when necessary. Thoracotomy was performed through the left

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Matthew A. Howard III, Alan Gross, M. Sean Grady, Robert S. Langer, Edith Mathiowitz, H. Richard Winn and Marc R. Mayberg

variety of medical applications. 23–25 The copolymer of poly(bis(p-carboxy-phenoxy)propane) anhydride and sebacic acid (PCPP-SA) forms a nontoxic, biodegradable matrix that releases impregnated substances as a result of hydrolytic surface erosion. 24 A 50:50 formulation of polyanhydride:sebacic acid in 3-to 5- µ microspheres provides linear release of embedded substances over intervals of 16 to 20 weeks. This new method of regionally specific neurotransmitter delivery may be useful in the study and treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Hippocampal cholinergic

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Pava Popovic, Vojin Popovic, Richard Schaffer and Carl H. Sutton

effect of levodopa and glycerol on recovery from cerebral infarction in rats after embolization with carbon microspheres. Materials and Methods Ninety-nine adult female Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 212 ± 21 gm (SD), were used in the experiments. The technique of induction of cerebral embolization with carbon microspheres described by Kogure, et al., 9 was adapted for our work. The intracarotid injection of microspheres is a reproducible method for inducement of cerebral infarction in small laboratory animals. 9, 20 Under Fluothane (halothane) anesthesia, one

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Douglas S. DeWitt, Larry W. Jenkins, Enoch P. Wei, Harry Lutz, Donald P. Becker and Hermes A. Kontos

vessels via cranial windows 30, 52 or the hydrogen-clearance technique for measuring CBF. 35, 36, 49 These techniques did not permit regional assessments of CBF in the entire neuraxis. We report on a study of regional CBF using radioactive microspheres in conjunction with measurements of pial arteriolar diameter following two levels of fluid-percussion injury in the cat. Materials and Methods The radioactive microsphere technique was used to measure CBF because the technique allows for repeated measurements of regional CBF, 38, 48 For each determination of CBF

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Ole J. Kirkeby, Ingunn R. Rise, Lars Nordsletten, Sigmund Skjeldal and Cecilie Risøe

and microsphere reference organ sampling. A pigtail catheter was inserted into the left heart ventricle through the left femoral artery for injection of radioactive microspheres. A Swan—Ganz catheter for measurement of right atrial pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), and pulmonary arterial wedge pressure (PAWP) was inserted using the right external jugular vein. Blood temperature was measured through the thermistor probe, and body temperature was maintained with the use of a heating pad. Ringer-acetate solution (25 ml/kg/hour) was administered intravenously