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Jay Jagannathan, G. Edward Vates, Nader Pouratian, Jason P. Sheehan, James Patrie, M. Sean Grady and John A. Jane Sr.

residents before and after implementation of an 80-hour workweek at UVA Parameter 2002 2007 % Change from 2002 average reported hrs per wk 103 78 −28 required conference/academic hrs per wk 15 7 −47 time in op room per wk, including nights 64 41 −35 on-call time per wk, including nights 24 30 +20 Discussion The US graduate medical education system has set the standard for the world, with many physicians from abroad anxious to repeat their training here. The hallmark of this educational experience has

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John S. Millis

most fortunate person, for in my life as a university president I have had the privilege of working very closely with two faculties of medicine made up of very distinguished people who were extremely kind to me, and who became my teachers in the hope that I might come to understand something of medical education and of medical practice. Second, through the good offices of the American Medical Association, of some of its constituent societies, and of the Association of American Medical Colleges, I have been given opportunities to observe, study, consider, learn, and

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Jose Weber Vieira de Faria, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Leonardo de Moura Sousa Júnior, Jose Pinhata Otoch and Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo

experience allied with tactile feedback. However, it has several limitations, including availability of specimens, cost, and a substantial time commitment. 21 , 23 , 36 , 40–42 Substances used for fixation, preservation, and preparation, e.g., formaldehyde, can be toxic, in addition to posing inherent risk of contamination. 1 , 10 , 12 , 42 As a consequence, cadaver dissection represents a small part of the time dedicated to medical education. 4 , 9 , 20 , 21 , 33 , 39–42 Computer-based virtual reality methods may overcome these drawbacks and provide interesting

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Travis M. Dumont, Anand I. Rughani, Paul L. Penar, Michael A. Horgan, Bruce I. Tranmer and Ryan P. Jewell

national survey of the program directors and residents in neurosurgery training programs . Neurosurgery 56 : 398 – 403 , 2005 4 Gopaldas RR , Chu D , Dao TK , Huh J , LeMaire SA , Coselli JS , : Impact of ACGME work-hour restrictions on the outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting in a cohort of 600,000 patients . J Surg Res 163 : 201 – 209 , 2010 5 Jagannathan J , Vates GE , Pouratian N , Sheehan JP , Patrie J , Grady MS , : Impact of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education work-hour regulations on

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Natalie Limoges, Erin D’Agostino, Aaron Gelinne, Cormac O. Maher, R. Michael Scott, Gerald Grant, Mark D. Krieger, David D. Limbrick Jr., Michael White and Susan Durham

neurosurgery during residency training. That being the case, the goal of the current study was to define pediatric neurosurgery exposure and education during neurosurgery residency across all Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) training programs. We hope this will address the current gap in the care of pediatric neurosurgery patients across the US, particularly in trauma, because adult neurosurgeons may not feel comfortable caring for pediatric patients. Methods A 25-question survey on pediatric neurosurgical education during residency was created by

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Christian P. DiPaola, Nicolas Dea, Marcel F. Dvorak, Robert S. Lee, Dennis Hartig and Charles G. Fisher

equate to bias, it has the potential to detract from best patient care if unrecognized. 12 This is certainly a current concern for industry-sponsored research, 1 but also for industry support of continuing medical education (CME). As stated by the American Medical Association Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs: CME activities should be developed without industry support and without the participation of teachers or program planners who have financial interests in the subject matter. 10 Is this a realistic goal? Physicians are often paid by companies to teach

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Bryan D. Choi, Michael R. DeLong, David M. DeLong, Allan H. Friedman and John H. Sampson

academia. Methods Data in this study were obtained from the top 10 US neurosurgical departments accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). Ranking was determined, as previously described, using the objective h (10) index, 11 a surrogate for academic productivity over the past 10 years. The coordinating offices of these training programs were individually contacted by electronic mail and telephone. Data were acquired from these offices and verified on program websites and online searches. All available data for residents and

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Benjamin D. Fox, Hassan H. Amhaz, Akash J. Patel, Daniel H. Fulkerson, Dima Suki, Andrew Jea and Raymond E. Sawaya

first and second years of medical education . Surgery 134 : 409 – 413 , 2003 7 Blumenfeld H : Neuroanatomy Through Clinical Cases Sunderland, MA , Sinauer Associates , 2002 8 Borman KR : Gender issues in surgical training: from minority to mainstream . Am Surg 73 : 161 – 165 , 2007 9 Brem H , Amundson E : Preparing Hopkins medical students for a career in academic neurosurgery . Surgery 134 : 414 – 415 , 2003 10 Brooks CH : The influence of medical school clinical experiences on career preferences: a multidimensional perspective

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Jeffrey L. Nadel, R. Michael Scott, Susan R. Durham and Cormac O. Maher

provider was not considered to have a pediatric-focused practice. Although most ranking systems are flawed in their ability to compare training programs, we chose to evaluate programs based on their NIH funding award rank, 16 one of the most respected ranking systems in the medical education community. To determine temporal trends, the majority of data were analyzed using count frequencies and proportions of the total. In examining ABNS and ABPNS certification by year only, those providers eligible for ABNS certification—as outlined in the ABNS bylaws—were included in

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Mark S. Dias, Jeffrey S. Sussman, Susan Durham and Mark R. Iantosca

eclipsed other factors. 6 More recent studies have examined how individual factors influence medical students' career choices, including perceived career satisfaction (even if the perceptions were incorrect), amount of debt, sex, race and ethnicity, income, lifestyle, malpractice costs, medical education, personality, and perhaps most importantly, a clinical rotation and/or exposure to a mentor or role model during medical school. 5 , 14 These last factors may play an important role in the medical student's ultimate career path. Effective faculty and surgical resident