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Christina Sayama, Tsulee Chen, Gregory Trost and Andrew Jea

pediatric population varies with age. In young children ages 0–9 years, the predominant cause of injury is falls and automobile-versus-pedestrian accidents (> 75%). In children ages 10–14 years, motor vehicle accidents (40%) are the major cause of lumbar fractures, and falls and automobile-versus-pedestrian accidents are less prevalent. In children 15–17 years of age, motor vehicle and motorcycle accidents become the leading cause of spine injuries (> 70%), and there is also an increase in sports-related spine trauma. The pediatric spinal column is different from the

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Cristian Gragnaniello, Kevin A. Seex, Lukas G. Eisermann, Matthew H. Claydon and Gregory M. Malham

T he Maverick lumbar disc prosthesis (Medtronic Inc.) was introduced in January 2002 (approved for implantation in Europe in December 2001), and since then 15,000 prostheses have been implanted worldwide. The Maverick has a ball-and-socket design with a fixed posterior center of rotation and is made of cobalt-chromium-molybdenum metal plates covered with hydroxyapatite at the bone-prosthesis interface. The superior and inferior endplates have keels to resist translation forces and are coated with an acid etching of the cobalt chrome followed by a high

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Ross C. Puffer, Ryan Planchard, Grant W. Mallory and Michelle J. Clarke

S urgery has long been an accepted treatment for symptomatic lumbar degenerative disease. Although outcomes at 2 years are similar with surgery and nonoperative measures, some recent studies have suggested that continued medical management beyond 6 weeks without improvement is not cost-effective. 11 , 17 Furthermore, although the upfront costs of operative management are higher, the overall economic impact (e.g., loss of productivity, continued medical evaluation, and treatment) may be higher in patients who are managed conservatively than in those who

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Dong Hwa Heo, Sang Kyu Son, Jin Hwa Eum and Choon Keun Park

L umbar fusion surgery is a treatment option for lumbar degenerative disease, such as segmental instability. 4 , 6 , 9 , 13 , 14 There are many types of lumbar fusion surgery, including anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF), posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF), and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). 4 , 6 , 9 , 11 Among these treatment modalities, PLIF and TLIF can result in direct posterior neural decompression. 11 Although conventional posterior open fusion surgeries can achieve wide decompression

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Yakov Gologorsky, Branko Skovrlj, Jeremy Steinberger, Max Moore, Marc Arginteanu, Frank Moore and Alfred Steinberger

T ransforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) has been increasing in popularity since its introduction by Harms and Rolinger in 1982. 14 , 15 The TLIF procedure involves a far-lateral transforaminal approach to the disc space through the vertebral foramen combined with posterior instrumentation. This procedure promotes circumferential fusion based on the principle of load sharing and provides anterior column support and a posterior tension band. TLIF is designed to restore normal lumbar lordosis, widen the neural foramen, restore disc height, and relieve

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Dong Hwa Heo and Choon Keun Park

attempted in the field of spine surgery; 3 , 11 it was first introduced by Michael Wang. 13 He emphasized the importance of endoscopic lumbar interbody fusion in the field of ERAS, 3 , 13 even though the concept of ERAS may not be popular in spine surgery. Percutaneous biportal endoscopic surgeries have been attempted for lumbar degenerative disease such as lumbar interbody fusion. 4 , 13 Endoscopic lumbar interbody fusion using a percutaneous biportal endoscopic approach may reduce operative scars and traumatization of posterior musculoligamentous structures. 4

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Eduardo Martinez-del-Campo, Leonardo Rangel-Castilla, Hector Soriano-Baron and Nicholas Theodore

magnetic field's effect on ferromagnetic bullet components that could potentially exacerbate the original injury. Therefore, GSWs have been considered a contraindication for MR imaging. 23 Studies that have looked into these interactions have drawn different conclusions. 2 , 5–8 , 14 , 16 , 18 , 19 , 23–25 The current review analyzes the most recent evidence available in the literature to determine the role of MR imaging in patients with a GSW to the lumbar spinal canal. Methods A review of English-language literature was performed on PubMed using the key words

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Daniel B. Loriaux, Owoicho Adogwa and Oren N. Gottfried

A n extradural intraforaminal spinal lipoma in the absence of myelospinal dysraphism is an exceedingly rare pathological entity. 8 , 15 Clinically, this lesion manifests as a unilateral radiculopathy refractory to conservative management. Although true adult spinal lipomas account for only 0.4%–0.8% of all intraspinal tumors, 15 the associated constellation of lumbosacral radiculopathy symptoms are estimated to affect 3%–5% of the adult population in the US. 7 , 12 The differential for common lumbar radiculopathy is vast and most frequently can be

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Sang-Hyun Han, Seung-Jae Hyun, Tae-Ahn Jahng and Ki-Jeong Kim

I t is uncommon for fractures to occur spontaneously in the lumbar pedicle. Some cases of unilateral lumbar pedicle fractures related to contralateral spondylolysis 3 , 6 , 7 , 22 , 23 or following surgical fusion have been reported. 8 , 11 , 12 , 15 , 18 , 19 , 21 However, reports of bilateral pedicle fractures without significant trauma, surgery, or a bony abnormality are limited. 14 , 16 , 20 We report a case of spontaneous bilateral pedicle fracture of L-5 in a middle-aged woman and describe the successful treatment with a motion-preserving surgical

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Robert G. Whitmore, Jill N. Curran, Zarina S. Ali, Praveen V. Mummaneni, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Robert F. Heary, Michael G. Kaiser, Anthony L. Asher, Neil R. Malhotra, Joseph S. Cheng, John Hurlbert, Justin S. Smith, Subu N. Magge, Michael P. Steinmetz, Daniel K. Resnick and Zoher Ghogawala

L umbar discectomy is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in the United States, accounting for almost 200,000 cases per year. 26 Generally, surgery for herniated lumbar discs is performed after failure of a trial of nonoperative management. 6 The goal of surgical treatment is to achieve decompression of neural elements by removing disc material in order to improve the patient’s symptoms and quality of life (QOL). Multiple studies have demonstrated that surgical intervention for patients with symptomatic lumbar disc herniation results