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Christina Sayama, Tsulee Chen, Gregory Trost, and Andrew Jea

pediatric population varies with age. In young children ages 0–9 years, the predominant cause of injury is falls and automobile-versus-pedestrian accidents (> 75%). In children ages 10–14 years, motor vehicle accidents (40%) are the major cause of lumbar fractures, and falls and automobile-versus-pedestrian accidents are less prevalent. In children 15–17 years of age, motor vehicle and motorcycle accidents become the leading cause of spine injuries (> 70%), and there is also an increase in sports-related spine trauma. The pediatric spinal column is different from the

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Taewook Kang, Si Young Park, Gun Woo Park, Soon Hyuck Lee, Jong Hoon Park, and Seung Woo Suh

M icroendoscopic discectomy has been a common surgical procedure in patients with lumbar disc herniation. 1 Percutaneous discectomy was first introduced by Hijikata in 1973. 2 Kambin and Sampson introduced an endoscopic discectomy technique. 3 Since then, new percutaneous endoscopic discectomy techniques have been developed. Minimally invasive spine surgery, which focuses on preservation of normal spine anatomy, is replacing conventional discectomy. 4 Recently, percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy is becoming widely used for the treatment of lumbar disc

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Cristian Gragnaniello, Kevin A. Seex, Lukas G. Eisermann, Matthew H. Claydon, and Gregory M. Malham

T he Maverick lumbar disc prosthesis (Medtronic Inc.) was introduced in January 2002 (approved for implantation in Europe in December 2001), and since then 15,000 prostheses have been implanted worldwide. The Maverick has a ball-and-socket design with a fixed posterior center of rotation and is made of cobalt-chromium-molybdenum metal plates covered with hydroxyapatite at the bone-prosthesis interface. The superior and inferior endplates have keels to resist translation forces and are coated with an acid etching of the cobalt chrome followed by a high

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Yakov Gologorsky, Branko Skovrlj, Jeremy Steinberger, Max Moore, Marc Arginteanu, Frank Moore, and Alfred Steinberger

T ransforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) has been increasing in popularity since its introduction by Harms and Rolinger in 1982. 14 , 15 The TLIF procedure involves a far-lateral transforaminal approach to the disc space through the vertebral foramen combined with posterior instrumentation. This procedure promotes circumferential fusion based on the principle of load sharing and provides anterior column support and a posterior tension band. TLIF is designed to restore normal lumbar lordosis, widen the neural foramen, restore disc height, and relieve

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Ross C. Puffer, Ryan Planchard, Grant W. Mallory, and Michelle J. Clarke

S urgery has long been an accepted treatment for symptomatic lumbar degenerative disease. Although outcomes at 2 years are similar with surgery and nonoperative measures, some recent studies have suggested that continued medical management beyond 6 weeks without improvement is not cost-effective. 11 , 17 Furthermore, although the upfront costs of operative management are higher, the overall economic impact (e.g., loss of productivity, continued medical evaluation, and treatment) may be higher in patients who are managed conservatively than in those who

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Dong Hwa Heo, Sang Kyu Son, Jin Hwa Eum, and Choon Keun Park

L umbar fusion surgery is a treatment option for lumbar degenerative disease, such as segmental instability. 4 , 6 , 9 , 13 , 14 There are many types of lumbar fusion surgery, including anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF), posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF), and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). 4 , 6 , 9 , 11 Among these treatment modalities, PLIF and TLIF can result in direct posterior neural decompression. 11 Although conventional posterior open fusion surgeries can achieve wide decompression

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Philina Yee, Joseph E. Tanenbaum, Dominic W. Pelle, Don Moore, Edward C. Benzel, Michael P. Steinmetz, and Thomas E. Mroz

within the same MS-DRG. 2 , 7 , 14 In spine surgery specifically, costs of care can vary by an order of magnitude within a single MS-DRG. 17 A potential driver of this variation is that the same procedure can be used to treat multiple different pathologies. Lumbar fusion is an example of a common and costly procedure that is widely utilized in the United States to treat a range of pathologies. Yearly Medicare expenditures attributed to inpatient spine surgery doubled from 1998 to 2008 and spondylosis was ranked the 10th most expensive condition among Medicare

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Eduardo Martinez-del-Campo, Leonardo Rangel-Castilla, Hector Soriano-Baron, and Nicholas Theodore

magnetic field's effect on ferromagnetic bullet components that could potentially exacerbate the original injury. Therefore, GSWs have been considered a contraindication for MR imaging. 23 Studies that have looked into these interactions have drawn different conclusions. 2 , 5–8 , 14 , 16 , 18 , 19 , 23–25 The current review analyzes the most recent evidence available in the literature to determine the role of MR imaging in patients with a GSW to the lumbar spinal canal. Methods A review of English-language literature was performed on PubMed using the key words

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Yossi Smorgick, Yigal Mirovsky, Yizhar Floman, Nahshon Rand, Michael Millgram, and Yoram Anekstein

F or the management of lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis with spinal stenosis, surgical treatment has better results than nonoperative care. 15 Herkowitz and Kurz, in a randomized prospective study, found that laminectomy with fusion was superior to laminectomy alone. 8 Two recent randomized controlled trials comparing laminectomy alone to laminectomy with instrumented posterolateral fusion reported conflicting results. The first found that lumbar laminectomy with fusion was associated with a slightly greater but clinically meaningful improvement in

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Dong Hwa Heo and Choon Keun Park

attempted in the field of spine surgery; 3 , 11 it was first introduced by Michael Wang. 13 He emphasized the importance of endoscopic lumbar interbody fusion in the field of ERAS, 3 , 13 even though the concept of ERAS may not be popular in spine surgery. Percutaneous biportal endoscopic surgeries have been attempted for lumbar degenerative disease such as lumbar interbody fusion. 4 , 13 Endoscopic lumbar interbody fusion using a percutaneous biportal endoscopic approach may reduce operative scars and traumatization of posterior musculoligamentous structures. 4