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Lotta Fornander, Torbjörn Nyman, Thomas Hansson, Mattias Ragnehed and Tom Brismar

following traumatic brain injury 5 , 23 , 34 or stroke 46 when damage in the cortex initiates a reorganization and an increase in the cortical activation, as well as in the normal brain in which selective attention to a vibrotactile task increases the cortical activation. 40 In addition to the presence of intrahemispheric plasticity, there is growing evidence of long-range plasticity between cortical hemispheres. Studies in rats with a single denervated forepaw have shown a shift of activity from the contralateral, deafferentated areas to areas ipsilateral to the

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Thomas Hansson Mattias Ragnehed Tom Brismar 7 2010 113 1 122 128 10.3171/2009.10.JNS09698 2009.10.JNS09698 Transfer of supinator motor branches to the posterior interosseous nerve in C7–T1 brachial plexus palsy Jayme Augusto Bertelli Marcos Flavio Ghizoni 7 2010 113 1 129 132 10.3171/2009.10.JNS09854 2009.10.JNS09854 Long-range plasticity between intact hemispheres after contralateral cervical nerve transfer in humans Chuan-Tao Zuo Xu-Yun Hua Yi-Hui Guan Wen-Dong Xu Jian-Guang Xu Yu-Dong Gu 7 2010 113 1 133 140 10.3171/2010.1.JNS09448 2010.1.JNS09448

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Chuan-Tao Zuo, Xu-Yun Hua, Yi-Hui Guan, Wen-Dong Xu, Jian-Guang Xu and Yu-Dong Gu

the same hemisphere, there can be long-range plasticity between cortical hemispheres. Most of the evidence comes from studies of direct cortical damage, such as stroke or cortical lesions in human and animal models. 1 , 4 , 8 , 25 Some studies have also explored interhemispheric cortical plasticity after peripheral nerve deafferentation, but little long-term motor cortex plasticity was involved. Brachial plexus root avulsion injury is a severe peripheral nerve deafferentation in which the nerves that bridge the CNS and one side of the upper limb are ruptured. The

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Xu-Yun Hua, Bin Liu, Yan-Qun Qiu, Wei-Jun Tang, Wen-Dong Xu, Han-Qiu Liu, Jian-Guang Xu and Yu-Dong Gu

. Neurosci Lett 230 : 137 – 139 , 1997 10 Songcharoen P , Wongtrakul S , Mahaisavariya B , Spinner RJ : Hemi-contralateral C7 transfer to median nerve in the treatment of root avulsion brachial plexus injury . J Hand Surg Am 26 : 1058 – 1064 , 2001 11 Terzis JK , Kostopoulos VK : The surgical treatment of brachial plexus injuries in adults . Plast Reconstr Surg 119 : 73e – 92e , 2007 12 Zuo CT , Hua XY , Guan YH , Xu WD , Xu JG , Gu YD : Long-range plasticity between intact hemispheres after contralateral cervical nerve

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Alexandra L. Mathews, Guang Yang, Kate Wan-Chu Chang and Kevin C. Chung

, 2006 16932179 10.1097/01.prs.0000232980.37831.76 50 Zuo CT , Hua XY , Guan YH , Xu WD , Xu JG , Gu YD : Long-range plasticity between intact hemispheres after contralateral cervical nerve transfer in humans . J Neurosurg 113 : 133 – 140 , 2010 10.3171/2010.1.JNS09448 20136390 Disclosures The authors report no conflict of interest concerning the materials or methods used in this study or the findings specified in this paper. Author Contributions Conception and design: Chung, Yang. Acquisition of data: Yang, Chang. Analysis and

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Bei-Bei Huo, Jun Shen, Xu-Yun Hua, Mou-Xiong Zheng, Ye-Chen Lu, Jia-Jia Wu, Chun-Lei Shan and Jian-Guang Xu

, Hayashi N , Tajiri Y , Satake Y , Ohtomo K : Brain reorganization in patients with brachial plexus injury: a longitudinal functional MRI study . Sci World J 2012 : 501751 , 2012 10.1100/2012/501751 45 Zuo CT , Hua XY , Guan YH , Xu WD , Xu JG , Gu YD : Long-range plasticity between intact hemispheres after contralateral cervical nerve transfer in humans . J Neurosurg 113 : 133 – 140 , 2010 20136390 10.3171/2010.1.JNS09448