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Mark Van Poppel, James W. Wheless, Dave F. Clarke, Amy McGregor, Mark H. McManis, Freedom F. Perkins Jr., Katherine Van Poppel, Stephen Fulton, and Frederick A. Boop

evaluating language dominance was limited to invasive lateralization procedures, such as intracarotid amobarbital testing (Wada test) or placement of intracranial electrodes for bedside or intraoperative language mapping. Newer technologies such as fMRI, PET, and SPECT have been used for functional investigations of language, and now MEG is also being used for functional mapping. 2 Despite the advances in our ability to conduct noninvasive functional studies, the evaluation of young children, uncooperative patients, and individuals with cognitive impairment has remained a

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Pauline Cuisenier, Bénédicte Testud, Lorella Minotti, Samuel El Bouzaïdi Tiali, Laurence Martineau, Anne-Sophie Job, Agnès Trébuchon, Pierre Deman, Manik Bhattacharjee, Dominique Hoffmann, Jean-Philippe Lachaux, Monica Baciu, Philippe Kahane, and Marcela Perrone-Bertolotti

tasks, including counting and naming. Naming was performed using black-and-white drawings of common objects from the French DO80 task. 20 DCS was performed immediately after every speech task onset. DCS findings were classified by the examiner (neurologist; L. Minotti, A.S.J., or P.K.) and documented directly in patients’ SEEG records. Language Task for Induced HFA Mapping Induced HFA language mapping was performed during SEEG recordings using a computerized language protocol (abbreviated “LEC” [language experimental condition]) that included three experimental

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Marco Riva, Enrica Fava, Marcello Gallucci, Alessandro Comi, Alessandra Casarotti, Tommaso Alfiero, Fabio A. Raneri, Federico Pessina, and Lorenzo Bello

In fact, DES allows identification and localization (mapping) of eloquent structures, at both the cortical and subcortical level. 5 , 15 , 17–19 , 30 , 34 , 39 In addition, a tailored neuropsychological evaluation provides an appropriate cognitive picture of the patient, leading to an objective definition of their cognitive status and guiding resection during language and cognitive mapping. 27 Language mapping is traditionally performed with DES delivered in trains of biphasic pulses at 50–60 Hz (low frequency) 6 , 7 , 25 , 29 through a bipolar probe. During

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Kirsty E. Bortnik, Guy M. McKhann II, and Marla J. Hamberger

epilepsy who underwent repeat surgery in the left perisylvian region. Here, we report findings from the initial intraoperative language mapping conducted when he was 14 years old and from repeat ESM in the same cortical region following an 11-year interval, when he was 25 years old. Given that his age (14 years) was beyond that which would be considered typical for language reorganization, we anticipated no significant reorganization of function. Case Report History and Examination A 26-year-old, right-handed, college-educated man had developed complex partial seizures

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Jeffrey G. Ojemann

electrocorticographic signals in humans . Epilepsy Behav 15 : 278 – 286 , 2009 4 Cervenka MC , Boatman-Reich DF , Ward J , Franaszczuk PJ , Crone NE : Language mapping in multilingual patients: electrocorticography and cortical stimulation during naming . Front Hum Neurosci 5 : 13 , 2011 5 Genetti M , Tyrand R , Grouiller F , Lascano AM , Vulliemoz S , Spinelli L , : Comparison of high gamma electrocorticography and fMRI with electrocortical stimulation for localization of somatosensory and language cortex . Clin Neurophysiol 126 : 121

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Melanie A. Morrison, Fred Tam, Marco M. Garavaglia, Laleh Golestanirad, Gregory M. T. Hare, Michael D. Cusimano, Tom A. Schweizer, Sunit Das, and Simon J. Graham

I ntraoperaitve language mapping during awake craniotomy to facilitate tumor resection remains challenging. The selection of intraoperative tasks can have a large impact on the identification of critical language areas by the gold standard intraoperative brain mapping approach, direct cortical electrical stimulation (DCES). 2 , 15 Number counting and visual object naming tasks are typically used to assess speech articulation and semantic and lexical retrieval, respectively. 1 , 3 , 5 , 11 , 12 , 17 , 18 , 21 These traditional tasks are advantageous for

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Sebastian Ille, Nico Sollmann, Theresa Hauck, Stefanie Maurer, Noriko Tanigawa, Thomas Obermueller, Chiara Negwer, Doris Droese, Claus Zimmer, Bernhard Meyer, Florian Ringel, and Sandro M. Krieg

demonstrated its usefulness for clinical practice. 22 , 33 , 35 , 52 , 53 , 77 Furthermore, repetitive navigated TMS (rTMS) and nonnavigated TMS are able to localize cortical language function. 18 , 19 , 40 , 48 , 69 , 80 Its clinical applicability and correlation to DCS during awake surgery have repeatedly been shown as well. 36 , 37 , 51 , 68 , 75 Although rTMS language mapping has already experienced some improvement, 40 the standard for preoperative, noninvasive language mapping remains functional MRI (fMRI). 21 Yet this technique, though well established, has

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Timothy H. Lucas II, Guy M. McKhann II, and George A. Ojemann

with the aid of intracarotid amobarbital perfusion studies in all patients. Twenty-four patients (96%) were left hemisphere dominant for verbal naming and subsequently underwent left-sided craniotomy. One bilingual left-handed patient (Case 16) who had been scheduled to undergo a right-sided craniotomy was found to have right hemisphere language dominance, thus necessitating language mapping. Bilingual language mapping in this patient proceeded in a manner identical to that performed in the remainder of the patient group. None of the patients had prior evidence of

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Tizian Rosenstock, Thomas Picht, Heike Schneider, Peter Vajkoczy, and Ulrich-Wilhelm Thomale

, and corticospinal tract (CST). 4 Studies have shown that patients with preoperative nTMS motor mapping had a better motor outcome than those without. 5 nTMS language mapping has shown high sensitivity (i.e., compared to that of intraoperative language mapping during awake craniotomy) and has also been used to support the DTI-derived language network tractography. 6 , 7 Because of the high negative predictive value of nTMS language mapping, most neurosurgical centers use its results as a “negative map” to aid neurosurgical planning. Noninvasive functional mapping

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Kai J. Miller, Taylor J. Abel, Adam O. Hebb, and Jeffrey G. Ojemann

previous studies. 34 Electrocortical stimulation mapping has long been the gold standard in clinical language mapping, 29 but there are significant reasons to explore electric potential–based alternatives. Stimulation mapping can be coarse in its ability to localize eloquent cortex. For example, sensorimotor mapping by ECS has been associated with motor activation at sites distant from the precentral gyrus. 26 Similarly, stimulation of the basal temporal cortex, including fusiform gyrus and inferior temporal gyrus, is associated with disruption of standard language