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James L. Frazier, James Lee, Ulrich W. Thomale, Joseph C. Noggle, Kenneth J. Cohen and George I. Jallo

for a limited volume and period of time is feasible in patients with intrinsic brainstem lesions. However, further investigation of such approaches is needed over longer periods of time and at earlier stages of tumor growth to enhance the conditions producing a better response. Furthermore, it will allow analysis of associated neurological deficits, and it will allow us to assess the highest possible degree of efficacy with the least amount of toxicity. Intranasal delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain has been investigated as a noninvasive method for

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Lauren Fletcher, Sanjivan Kohli, Shane M. Sprague, Robert A. Scranton, Stuart A. Lipton, Augusto Parra, David F. Jimenez and Murat Digicaylioglu

–IGF-I (50 μg/kg). In addition, mice that underwent 1 hour of MCAO also received the same treatments. Intranasal delivery showed the highest concentrations and earliest peak concentrations compared with subcutaneous, intravenous, and intraperitoneal injections ( Fig. 5 ). Intranasal 125 I-EPO and 125 I–IGF-I concentrations peaked at 60–120 minutes versus 240–360 minutes for the other delivery systems. The superiority of intranasal delivery was seen for both 125 I-EPO and 125 I–IGF-I and for normal and poststroke brain (p < 0.01). In the normal brain, intranasal 125 I

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Park Hyung Chun Park Yoon Ha 7 2009 111 1 155 163 10.3171/2008.12.JNS08172 2008.12.JNS08172 Intranasal delivery of erythropoietin plus insulin-like growth factor–I for acute neuroprotection in stroke Lauren Fletcher Sanjivan Kohli Shane M. Sprague Robert A. Scranton Stuart A. Lipton Augusto Parra David F. Jimenez Murat Digicaylioglu 7 2009 111 1 164 170 10.3171/2009.2.JNS081199 2009.2.JNS081199 Acute systemic erythropoietin therapy to reduce delayed ischemic deficits following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a Phase II randomized, double-blind, placebo

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Benjamin K. Hendricks, Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol and James C. Miller

Intranasal delivery Agent is inhaled & follows olfactory & trigeminal nerve pathways da Fonseca et al., 2008 & 2013 Gliadel wafer Surgically implanted carmustine-loaded polymer Kunwar et al., 2010; Attenello et al., 2008 Efflux pump inhibitors Suppress transporters to increase intraparenchymal drug presence Brown et al., 2008 Focused ultrasound–mediated disruption Thermomechanical disruption of the BBB None Molecular Trojan horses Engineered ligand coupled to drug of interest shuttled across BBB via receptor-mediated transcytosis

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Koshi Ninomiya, Koichi Iwatsuki, Yu-ichiro Ohnishi, Toshika Ohkawa and Toshiki Yoshimine

.t. BMSC–treated group, and the injured-only group were 10.55 ± 6.42, 9.33 ± 2.70, and 14.01 ± 5.29, respectively. However, the BDNF concentrations (pg/ml) in the CSF of the i.n. BMSC–treated group, the i.t. BMSC–treated group, and the injured-only group were 75.25 ± 33.65, 44.98 ± 20.12, and 41.53 ± 18.57, respectively. There were no significant differences among the 3 groups with respect to NGF or BDNF levels in the CSF. Discussion The Importance of Intranasal Cell Delivery The intranasal delivery of cells to the brain was first reported by Danielyan et al. 9

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-Jui Liao 7 2015 23 1 94 98 10.3171/2014.11.SPINE14579 2014.11.SPINE14579 Clinical presentation and surgical outcomes of intramedullary neurenteric cysts Tao Yang Liang Wu Jingyi Fang Chenlong Yang Xiaofeng Deng Yulun Xu 7 2015 23 1 99 110 10.3171/2014.11.SPINE14352 2014.11.SPINE14352 Intranasal delivery of bone marrow stromal cells to spinal cord lesions Koshi Ninomiya Koichi Iwatsuki Yu-ichiro Ohnishi Toshika Ohkawa Toshiki Yoshimine 7 2015 23 1 111 119 10.3171/2014.10.SPINE14690 2014.10.SPINE14690 The effect of spinal osteotomies on spinal cord tension and

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immunosuppressive environment observed in patients. Our data suggests that Galectin-3 may be a novel target for immunomodulation in GBM. J Neurosurg Journal of Neurosurgery JNS 0022-3085 1933-0693 American Association of Neurological Surgeons 10.3171/2016.4.JNS.AANS2016abstracts 2016.4.JNS.AANS2016ABSTRACTS Abstracts 614. Delayed Clearance of Neural Stem Cells Enhances Migration to Glioma Xenografts After Intranasal Delivery Drew Allan Spencer , MD , Dou Yu , PhD , Ramin Morshed , Yu Han , Lingjiao

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Layton Lamsam, Eli Johnson, Ian D. Connolly, Max Wintermark and Melanie Hayden Gephart

-brain barrier opening and brain drug delivery . IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 61 : 1350 – 1360 , 2014 10.1109/TBME.2014.2305723 24658258 32 Liu Y , Lu W : Recent advances in brain tumor-targeted nano-drug delivery systems . Expert Opin Drug Deliv 9 : 671 – 686 , 2012 22607535 10.1517/17425247.2012.682726 33 Lochhead JJ , Thorne RG : Intranasal delivery of biologics to the central nervous system . Adv Drug Deliv Rev 64 : 614 – 628 , 2012 10.1016/j.addr.2011.11.002 22119441 34 Malam Y , Loizidou M , Seifalian AM : Liposomes and nanoparticles: nanosized

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Weijun Wang, Steve Swenson, Hee-Yeon Cho, Florence M. Hofman, Axel H. Schönthal and Thomas C. Chen

greater brain exposure than intravenous dosing. 35 , 39 , 40 However, these studies did not investigate any antitumor efficacy, and in general there is a paucity of published reports on intranasal delivery as a means of cancer chemotherapy. 34 A remarkable exception to this are reports of clinical phase I and II studies in Brazil, where perillyl alcohol (POH), a naturally occurring monoterpene, was successfully administered via intranasal delivery to patients with malignant glioma. 8–10 In the United States, a standardized, highly purified, GMP-quality version of POH