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Paul E. Kaloostian, Jennifer E. Kim, Ali Bydon, Daniel M. Sciubba, Jean-Paul Wolinsky, Ziya L. Gokaslan, and Timothy F. Witham

system implementation that was not existent at the time of those encounters. Average hourly drain output before symptom onset was 9.2 ml per hour, or a daily average of 221 ml per day. The total volume of intraoperative CSF loss was not recorded, but all CSF leaks were repaired immediately upon detection. Intracranial Hemorrhage All 8 patients were symptomatic postoperatively. Symptom onset ranged from immediately after surgery to postoperative Day 3, and symptoms included headache (n = 1), aphasia (n = 1), seizure (n = 1), and altered mental status (n = 4). No

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Christina Huang, Elias Rizk, Mark Iantosca, Andrea L. Zaenglein, Klaus F. Helm, Arabinda K. Choudhary, and Mark S. Dias

during infancy. The overall mortality rate is estimated at 65%. 2 Intracranial hemorrhage is a rare complication of MLT; only 3 such cases have been reported, 5 , 8 and none of these has been presented in the neurosurgical literature. We describe the case of a female with a prenatally diagnosed intracranial mass who, at birth, had multiple cutaneous lesions suggestive of MLT. Case Report Prenatal Examination Hydrocephalus and cerebellar hypoplasia interpreted as a Dandy-Walker variant were diagnosed in a female by using prenatal cranial ultrasound

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Ruth Andrea Seeler and Renato B. Imana

small subdural hematoma evacuated. Then, at a depth of 3 cm, a well-organized intracerebral hematoma was found and evacuated. Pre-infusion AHF levels ranged from 25% to 36%, and post-infusion values ranged from 56% to 75%. The patient still has dysphasia and severe motor impairment despite physical therapy accompanied by AHF replacement. Discussion In hemophilia, intracranial hemorrhage may follow slight trauma. The initial trauma was quite mild in three of our patients. In the fourth patient, trauma was suspected, due to the presence of the hematoma on

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Carol B. Sedzimir and Julian Robinson

S pontaneous intracranial hemorrhage in childhood has been a relatively neglected subject in pediatric and neurosurgical journals, although it has been known since 1871 5 that children may die from intracranial hemorrhage due to a ruptured congenital saccular aneurysm. Most reports of juvenile cases of bleeding aneurysm and arteriovenous malformation describe single cases. 3, 6, 7, 11, 12, 24, 28, 29, 33 It is very difficult to find information on the subject of intracranial hemorrhage of other etiology; hemophilia is a notable exception. Tizard 36 and

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Neonatal intracranial hemorrhage

A clinical and serial computerized tomographic study

Richard Leblanc and Augustin M. O'Gorman

.7.505 19. Robertson NRC , Howat P : Hypernatraemia as a cause of intracranial haemorrhage. Arch Dis Child 50 : 938 – 942 , 1975 Robertson NRC, Howat P: Hypernatraemia as a cause of intracranial haemorrhage. Arch Dis Child 50: 938–942, 1975 10.1136/adc.50.12.938 20. Simmons MA , Adcock EW III , Bard H , et al : Hypernatremia and intracranial hemorrhage in neonates. N Engl J Med 291 : 6 – 10 , 1974 Simmons MA, Adcock EW III, Bard H, et al: Hypernatremia and intracranial hemorrhage in

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James K. C. Liu, Hesham Soliman, Andre Machado, Milind Deogaonkar, and Ali R. Rezai

implantation of DBS electrodes carries a small risk of intracranial hemorrhage. The incidence of intracranial hemorrhage associated with DBS implantation procedures has been reported to range from 1.0% to 3.4%. 1–9 As the number of DBS procedures increases, the number of DBS lead removal procedures performed is also increasing due to infection, erosion, lead breakage, and suboptimal placement. Although the risk of intracranial hemorrhage from placement of DBS leads has been well reported, there is no published literature regarding the risk of intracranial hemorrhage after

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Joshua J. Chern, Andrew J. Tsung, William Humphries, Raymond Sawaya, and Frederick F. Lang

I ntracranial hemorrhage is a relatively common and often devastating complication associated with leukemia patients with a prevalence estimated to be as high as 15%. Intracranial hemorrhage accounts for approximately 70% of all cerebrovascular accidents 6 and an estimated 5% of deaths in this patient population. 9 The cause of ICH in patients with leukemia appears to be multifactorial that is contingent upon a myriad of factors, including blood vessel wall rupture secondary to leukocyte infiltration, thrombocytopenia, platelet dysfunction, and

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Nathaniel R. Ellens and Howard J. Silberstein

cerebrovascular disease. 6–10 In the pediatric population, neurological symptoms most often include mild symptoms such as headache, myalgia, and fatigue. More severe symptoms, including seizures, encephalopathy, and meningeal signs, have also been reported but are much less common. 11 To date, there has only been one reported case of a pediatric patient with COVID-19 who developed intracranial hemorrhage. 12 In this case, the patient presented with significant symptoms, including fever, respiratory insufficiency, fatigue, and nausea. His hemorrhage was not

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Craig D. McClain, Sulpicio G. Soriano, Liliana C. Goumnerova, Peter M. Black, and Mark A. Rockoff

There are numerous reports describing the utility of iMR imaging in neurosurgi-cal procedures, especially with respect to the extent of resection. 1 , 2 , 6 , 7 , 9 However, the degree to which iMR imaging may improve outcomes in the pediatric population remains undefined. We report on two cases of unanticipated intracranial hemorrhaging in children undergoing craniotomies in an iMR imaging suite. In both cases, the use of iMR imaging (0.5-tesla unit, Signa SP, GE Medical Systems) facilitated the prompt and effective identification of these unanticipated

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Kuniaki Ogasawara, Nobuyuki Sakai, Terumasa Kuroiwa, Kohkichi Hosoda, Koji Iihara, Kazunori Toyoda, Chiaki Sakai, Izumi Nagata, Akira Ogawa, and Japanese Society for Treatment at Neck in Cerebrovascular Disease Study Group

comparing those who experience postoperative CHS after CAS versus those who have the condition following CEA. Improvements in surgical and endovascular techniques have reduced the incidence of ischemic stroke following CEA and CAS, respectively; as a result, intracranial hemorrhage associated with CHS may become a major cause of morbidity and death following carotid artery revascularization. 1 The study group of the Japanese Society for Treatment at Neck in Cerebrovascular Disease retrospectively collected cases of carotid artery stenosis treated with CEA or CAS over