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Marco Losa, Reinhard Oeckler, Jochen Schopohl, O. Albrecht Müller, Julia Alba-Lopez and Klaus von Werder

-up periods. References 1. Arafah BM , Brodkey JS , Kaufman B , et al : Transsphenoidal microsurgery in the treatment of acromegaly and gigantism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 50 : 578 – 585 , 1980 Arafah BM, Brodkey JS, Kaufman B, et al: Transsphenoidal microsurgery in the treatment of acromegaly and gigantism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 50: 578–585, 1980 2. Arafah BM , Rosenzweig JL , Fenstermaker R , et al : Value of growth hormone dynamics and somatomedin C (insulin-like growth factor 1

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Masaki Kurihara, Yoshiharu Tokunaga, Keisuke Tsutsumi, Tsutomu Kawaguchi, Kazuto Shigematsu, Masami Niwa and Kazuo Mori

–1094, 1983 28. Sara VR , Hall K , von Holtz H , et al : Evidence for the presence of specific receptors for insulin-like growth factors 1 and (IGF-1) and 2 (IGF-2) and insulin throughout the adult human brain. Neurosci Lett 34 : 39 – 44 , 1982 Sara VR, Hall K, von Holtz H, et al: Evidence for the presence of specific receptors for insulin-like growth factors 1 and (IGF-1) and 2 (IGF-2) and insulin throughout the adult human brain. Neurosci Lett 34: 39–44, 1982 29. Sara VR , Prisell P , Sjogren B

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Insulin and insulin-like growth factors in central nervous system tumors

Part V: Production of insulin-like growth factors I and II in vitro

Roberta P. Glick, Terry G. Unterman, Mary Van der Woude and Lisa Zollner Blaydes

regulation of brain development. Prog Brain Res 73: 87–99, 1988 48. Sara VR , Hall K , Misaki M , et al : Ontogenesis of somatomedin and insulin receptors in the human fetus. J Clin Invest 71 : 1084 – 1094 , 1983 Sara VR, Hall K, Misaki M, et al: Ontogenesis of somatomedin and insulin receptors in the human fetus. J Clin Invest 71: 1084–1094, 1983 49. Sara VR , Hall K , von Holtz H , et al : Evidence for the presence of specific receptors of insulin-like growth factors 1 (IGF-1) and 2

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Naoki Kitagawa, Keisuke Tsutsumi, Masami Niwa, Akihiko Himeno, Kimihiro Yamashita, Shigeki Shibata, Kohtaro Taniyama, Masaki Kurihara, Teruaki Kawano, Akio Yasunaga and Shobu Shibata

well as insulin-like growth factor-1 stimulate DNA synthesis in cultured meningioma cells in vitro . 19, 53 Taken together, it may be that the vasoactive peptide endothelin also acts as an autocrine growth factor for human meningiomas, either when added alone to the cells or in combination with other polypeptide growth factors. Capillary endothelial cells can produce and secrete ET, 58 and meningioma is a hypervascular CNS tumor. Thus in a paracrine fashion, the endothelium of the tumor vessels might be a source of ET for meningioma cells. Plasma-derived ET may

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Hélène Long, Hugues Beauregard, Maurice Somma, Ronald Comtois, Omar Serri and Jules Hardy

, Ilstrup DM, et al: Results of surgical treatment for growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas. J Neurosurg 79: 70–75, 1993 11. Dobrashian RD , O'Halloran DJ , Hunt A , et al : Relationships between insulin-like growth factor-1 levels and growth hormone concentrations during diurnal profiles and following oral glucose in acromegaly. Clin Endocrinol 38 : 589 – 593 , 1993 Dobrashian RD, O'Halloran DJ, Hunt A, et al: Relationships between insulin-like growth factor-1 levels and growth hormone concentrations during

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William J. Sonstein, Abraham Kader, W. Jost Michelsen, Josefina F. Llena, Asao Hirano and Diana Casper

growth factor-1 promote rat aortic angiogenesis in vitro . Am J Pathol 145 : 1023 – 1029 , 1994 Nicosia RF, Nicosia SV, Smith M: Vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor-1 promote rat aortic angiogenesis in vitro . Am J Pathol 145: 1023–1029, 1994 19. Padget DH : The development of the cranial arteries in the human embryo. Contrib Embryol 32 : 205 – 262 , 1948 Padget DH: The development of the cranial arteries in the human embryo. Contrib Embryol 32: 205

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Jimmi Hatton, Robert P. Rapp, Kenneth A. Kudsk, Rex O. Brown, Mark S. Luer, Julie G. Bukar, Sharon A. Chen, Craig J. McClain, Neil Gesundheit, Robert J. Dempsey and Byron Young

. Chwals WJ , Bistrian BR : Role of exogenous growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I in malnutrition and acute metabolic stress: a hypothesis. Crit Care Med 19 : 1317 – 1322 , 1991 Chwals WJ, Bistrian BR: Role of exogenous growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I in malnutrition and acute metabolic stress: a hypothesis. Crit Care Med 19: 1317–1322, 1991 11. Cioffi WG , Gore DC , Rue LW III , et al : Insulin-like growth factor-1 lowers protein oxidation in patients with thermal injury

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Rona S. Carroll, Peter M. Black, Jianping Zhang, Matthias Kirsch, Ivona Percec, Nelson Lau and Abhijit Guha

Kuratsu JI, Seto H, Kochi M, et al: Expression of PDGF, PDGF-receptors, EGF-receptors and sex hormone receptors on meningioma. Acta Neurochir 131: 289–293, 1994 31. Kurihara M , Tokunaga Y , Tsutsumi K , et al : Characterization of insulin-like growth factor 1 and epidermal growth factor receptor in meningioma. J Neurosurg 71 : 538 – 544 , 1989 Kurihara M, Tokunaga Y, Tsutsumi K, et al: Characterization of insulin-like growth factor 1 and epidermal growth factor receptor in meningioma. J Neurosurg 71: 538–544, 1989

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Marius Maxwell, Sarah D. Shih, Theofanis Galanopoulos, E. Tessa Hedley-Whyte and G. Rees Cosgrove

cellular stimulation with the loss of cellular inhibition is known to cause the cellular transformation of most tumors, including gliomas 14, 29 and colorectal carcinomas. 8 Protooncogene activation often entails amplification or mutation of the gene resulting in the promotion of uncontrolled cell division. The tumor suppressor gene protein product, conversely, normally acts to inhibit cell division, and its loss leads to uncontrolled proliferation. Protooncogene and growth factor overexpression, particularly of insulin-like growth factor-1 and -2, 1 KRAS, 6 erbB

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Steven A. Toms, Aleck Hercbergs, Jinbo Liu, Seiji Kondo, Talat Haqqi, Graham Casey, Koichi Iwasaki, Gene H. Barnett and Barbara P. Barna

treated with high-dose tamoxifen. Neurosurgery 32 : 485 – 490 , 1993 Couldwell WT, Weiss MH, DeGiorgio CM, et al: Clinical and radiographic response in a minority of patients with recurrent malignant gliomas treated with high-dose tamoxifen. Neurosurgery 32: 485–490, 1993 7. Dunn SE , Hardman RA , Kari FW , et al : Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) alters drug sensitivity of HBL100 human breast cancer cells by inhibition of apoptosis induced by diverse anticancer drugs. Cancer Res 57 : 2687 – 2693