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Norbert Kozák and Masato Hayashi

S ubarachnoid hemorrhage accounts for only a small portion of stroke cases, but its impact is relatively great because it is associated with high case fatalty and disease burden. The incidence of SAH has ranged widely among the different regions of the world, 6 , 7 and its incidence in Japan has been reported to be one of the highest. 3 , 5 , 9 This pattern was also documented in Akita Prefecture, although SAH incidence rates were analyzed only in people with ages from 25 to 74 years. 14 Authors of two studies have analyzed the incidence trends in the

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Paul Sean Echlin, Charles H. Tator, Michael D. Cusimano, Robert C. Cantu, Jack E. Taunton, Ross E. G. Upshur, Craig R. Hall, Andrew M. Johnson, Lorie A. Forwell, and Elaine N. Skopelja

C urrent literature on ice hockey concussion incidence does not use a single agreed-upon definition or methodology. Very few studies use direct physician-based data collection, and an internationally agreed-upon return-to-play protocol. 19 This research inconsistency may result in a paucity of significant concussion incidence data and contribute to an underreporting of the true incidence of this important injury. Sport concussions can have cumulative and long-lasting effects on memory, judgment, social conduct, reflexes, speech, balance, and coordination

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Michael C. Dewan, Abbas Rattani, Rania Mekary, Laurence J. Glancz, Ismaeel Yunusa, Ronnie E. Baticulon, Graham Fieggen, John C. Wellons III, Kee B. Park, and Benjamin C. Warf

H ydrocephalus is the most common childhood brain disorder and among the most common entities addressed by neurosurgeons. Associated with a variety of etiologies and with competing theories of pathophysiology, untreated hydrocephalus might result in macrocephaly, cognitive dysfunction, and even death. Once diagnosed, treatment consists of CSF diversion by means of a shunt or third ventriculostomy, performed by a surgeon adept at the management of hydrocephalus. Geographic disparities in hydrocephalus incidence have been demonstrated. In sub-Saharan Africa, Warf

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Steven Hsu, Marisa Quattrone, Quinn Ostrom, Timothy C. Ryken, Andrew E. Sloan, and Jill S. Barnholtz-Sloan

P rimary spinal cord tumors are considered rare, accounting for only 4–8% of all primary CNS lesions. 4 , 5 , 7 , 13 To date, there have been no large population-based epidemiological studies analyzing incidence patterns over time for this tumor type. The overall incidence of primary spinal cord tumors (malignant and nonmalignant combined) was recently reported as 0.74 per 100,000 person-years, with the lowest incidence rates in children 0–19 years of age at diagnosis and the highest in adults 65–74 years of age at diagnosis, with a median age at

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Michael C. Dewan, Abbas Rattani, Saksham Gupta, Ronnie E. Baticulon, Ya-Ching Hung, Maria Punchak, Amit Agrawal, Amos O. Adeleye, Mark G. Shrime, Andrés M. Rubiano, Jeffrey V. Rosenfeld, and Kee B. Park

< 1% (China) to nearly 15% (Mexico and Venezuela) of the studied population, with most estimates approximating those from high-income countries (HICs). 134 Efforts to identify reliable epidemiological data on the incidence of and the disability and mortality from TBI in resource-poor settings are still needed. Road traffic collisions are a significant source of TBI. 24 , 161 , 216 , 231 , 257 , 259 Using national registries, population-based literature, and statistical modeling, the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2015 (GBD 2015) 116 estimated the incidence

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Are Helseth

S ince the mid-1970s, the widespread availability and use of computerized tomography (CT) has revolutionized the diagnosis of diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). Computerized tomography provides high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. It is safer than angiography and pneumoencephalography and is therefore also offered to old and physically weak patients. Another noninvasive imaging tool, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, became available in the mid-1980s and has become the diagnostic procedure of choice for CNS tumors. The observed incidence of

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Daan Backes, Gabriel J. E. Rinkel, Ale Algra, Ilonca Vaartjes, Gé A. Donker, and Mervyn D. I. Vergouwen

T he incidence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) varies during the year, with higher incidences in winter than in summer, and a peak in January. 10 , 13 , 15 The underlying cause for this seasonal variation remains uncertain but may shed some light on the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysm rupture. Meteorological factors such as temperature, humidity, and atmospheric pressure have been suggested as underlying causes in studies from many different countries, but the data are inconsistent. 10 Other studies hypothesized that infections such as

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Enrico Giordan, Christopher S. Graffeo, Alejandro A. Rabinstein, Robert D. Brown Jr., Walter A. Rocca, Alanna M. Chamberlain, and Giuseppe Lanzino

T he incidence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) varies in different regions of the world and across ethnic groups. 3 Recent population-based studies have reported a decreasing incidence of aSAH. 3 , 9 Both population-based cohorts 3 , 8 and hospital-based cohorts 9 have also suggested improved survival after the hemorrhage. Lower mortality may be related to a better understanding of the disease and its complications, advances in neurocritical care, and the increased use of endovascular therapy to treat ruptured aneurysms. 9 However, the reasons

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Ingrid Hoeritzauer, Matthew Wood, Phillip C. Copley, Andreas K. Demetriades, and Julie Woodfield

operating outside normal working hours in district general hospitals and the potential need for specialist spinal or neurosurgical intervention. 11 , 29 However, many patients who present with clinical symptoms in keeping with CES will not have cauda equina compression on MRI, 26 which complicates planning service design and delivery. Establishing the incidence of CES and the likelihood of a diagnosis of CES in those presenting with symptoms consistent with CES would facilitate planning imaging and operative pathways for patients with suspected CES. In this systematic

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Fusao Ikawa, Akio Morita, Takeo Nakayama, Yoshihito Goto, Nobuyuki Sakai, Koji Iihara, Yoshiaki Shiokawa, Isao Date, Kazuhiko Nozaki, Hiroyuki Kinouchi, Kiyohiro Houkin, Nobuhito Saito, Teiji Tominaga, Michiyasu Suzuki, Susumu Miyamoto, Kaoru Kurisu, and Hajime Arai

F inland 1 and Japan 2 have been reported to have the highest incidences of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in the world. However, recently available evidence does not support a high incidence in Finland 3 because the evidence was based on regional studies without standardization of reference populations 4–6 and because, according to other data, the incidence rate decreased by 24% between 1998 and 2012 along with a simultaneous decrease in smoking prevalence. 7 According to a recent meta-analysis, 8 the crude global incidence of SAH has declined from 10.2 per