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Jérôme Yelnik, Philippe Damier, Sophie Demeret, David Gervais, Eric Bardinet, Boulos-Paul Bejjani, Chantal François, Jean-Luc Houeto, Isabelle Arnulf, Didier Dormont, Damien Galanaud, Bernard Pidoux, Philippe Cornu, and Yves Agid

transformed into coordinates based on the AC—PC line by applying a previously published transformation matrix. 10 These three coordinates were then transferred onto figures from an atlas based on the AC—PC line, 33 and the localization of the contact, expressed in terms of its position within or outside the STN, was thus determined. The 3D atlas—MR imaging coregistration procedure was devised to create a scaled fusion of the contours of the atlas figures 33 and the MR image obtained in each patient. The first step consisted of reformatting the postoperative MR image

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Veronika Paštyková, Josef Novotný Jr., Tomáš Veselský, Dušan Urgošík, Roman Liščák, and Josef Vymazal

apply the distortion correction algorithm. To measure the distortion accurately, phantoms with the established geometry must be used, usually consisting of square grids, cylindrical rods, or capillary tubes. 17 , 28 Image co-registration is the process of finding the mathematical transformation that aligns several different radiographic studies. 4 Co-registration software has been implemented to the latest versions of Leksell GammaPlan (LGP). There are obvious potential advantages of including image co-registration processes in treatment planning, especially for

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Yoichi Watanabe and Eunyoung Han

implemented in the LGP treatment planning software. Methods We tested the image registration tool in the LGP Versions 4C (Release 5.34) and 8.0 (Elekta). The version 4C needs additional modules for image registration, which are independently provided as MultiView and ImageMerge modules. Version 8.0 already includes the ImageMerge-based image registration tool. In the LGP software, a NMI algorithm is used for image coregistration. 6 The information-based coregistration algorithm tries to maximize the mutual information between 2 image sets. The performance of the

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Sandra L. Poliachik, Andrew V. Poliakov, Laura A. Jansen, Sharon S. McDaniel, Carter D. Wray, John Kuratani, Russell P. Saneto, Jeffrey G. Ojemann, and Edward J. Novotny Jr

studies and resective epilepsy surgeries (landmarks generated by the IGS system) are coregistered with pre- and postoperative structural, functional, and metabolic neuroimaging as well as postoperative CT data (used to build a model of implanted electrodes) by using BioImage Suite. 16 These landmarks are used to verify image coregistration; during resective epilepsy surgery, additional landmarks are useful to track the origin of tissue samples that can be analyzed for gene and protein expression as well as pathological characteristics. The tissue landmarks are then

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Xavier De Tiège, Benjamin Legros, Marc Op de Beeck, Serge Goldman, and Patrick Van Bogaert

position indicator coils, the locations of which were digitized prior to MEG. Additional points on the scalp were also digitized and overlaid on the MR image to ensure accurate MEG/MR imaging coregistration. Findings The magnetoencephalographic investigation revealed the existence of frequent interictal spikes in the left frontotemporal magnetoencephalographic sensors with ECDs localized in the left inferior frontal region ( Fig. 1 ). F ig . 1. A: A sample of MEG data processed with the conventional signal space separation (SSS) method is shown on the left

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Claudio Pollo, François Vingerhoets, Etienne Pralong, Joseph Ghika, Philippe Maeder, Reto Meuli, Jean-Philippe Thiran, and Jean-Guy Villemure

local mechanisms of action of STN DBS. 6 , 8 , 22 , 25 More accurate understanding of the effect(s) of DBS implies perfect knowledge of the actual postoperative position of the implanted electrodes and active contact. Magnetic resonance imaging has inspired interest in postoperative control of the electrode localization. Authors of several studies based on MR imaging alone or multimodal imaging coregistration have described methods for electrode localization. 15 , 17 , 18 , 26 In these studies, it has been assumed that the position of the electrode artifact and the

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Klaus D. Hamm, Gunnar Surber, Michael Schmücking, Reinhard E. Wurm, Rene Aschenbach, Gabriele Kleinert, A. Niesen, and Richard P. Baum

the head. Med Image Analysis 1: 163–175, 1996 20. Thiel A , Pietrzyk U , Sturm V : Enhanced accuracy in differential diagnosis of radiation necrosis by positron emission tomography-magnetic resonancs imaging coregistration: technical case report. Neurosurgery 46 : 232 – 234 , 2000 Thiel A, Pietrzyk U, Sturm V: Enhanced accuracy in differential diagnosis of radiation necrosis by positron emission tomography-magnetic resonancs imaging coregistration: technical case report. Neurosurgery 46: 232–234, 2000 21

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Arthur Carminucci, Ke Nie, Joseph Weiner, Eric Hargreaves, and Shabbar F. Danish

uncertainty, and interobserver variation in target volume delineation. 18 Chung et al. measured image coregistration error for frameless SRS using the GK Icon. 1 They found that the uncertainties associated with MRI-CT registration and CBCT-CT registration were less than 1 mm. We, therefore, made the assumption in our study that registration error has a minimal clinical impact. Additionally, the variability in error seen in mask fixation is directly dependent on the IR displacement threshold. If we were to lower the threshold to less than 1.5 mm of displacement, it would

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Ashesh D. Mehta, Douglas Labar, Andrew Dean, Cynthia Harden, Syed Hosain, Jayoung Pak, David Marks, and Theodore H. Schwartz

using a three-dimensional atlas-magnetic resonance imaging coregistration method. J Neurosurg 99 : 89 – 99 , 2003 Yelnik J, Damier P, Demeret S, Gervais D, Bardinet E, Bejjani BP, et al: Localization of stimulating electrodes in patients with Parkinson disease by using a three-dimensional atlas-magnetic resonance imaging coregistration method. J Neurosurg 99: 89–99, 2003

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Michael A. Murphy, Terence J. O'Brien, Kevin Morris, and Mark J. Cook

epileptogenic focus. This approach has been termed “MMIGS.” The application of image-guided surgery for the treatment of epilepsy has improved our ability to resect lesions causing epilepsy. Currently, it is based on a T 1 -weighted volumetric MR image with high structural resolution and anatomical detail. Note that functional imaging modalities do not have the structural resolution to be used as IGSSs on their own. Image coregistration is applied to integrate the functional imaging data with high-resolution T 1 -weighted images ready for use in the IGSS. The purpose of