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Hydromyelic hydrocephalus

Correlation of hydromyelia with various stages of hydrocephalus in postshunt isolated compartments

Shizuo Oi, Hiroshi Kudo, Hiroshi Yamada, Songyu Kim, Seiji Hamano, Seishiro Urui, and Satoshi Matsumoto

-Robin spaces; 4 transmedullary passage of CSF; 1 development of an Arnold-Chiari malformation due to a negative pressure gradient; 48 and central cord necrosis induced by impaired venous drainage. 46 Although it is well known that the neural tube is primarily a single cavity in its early stages of development and that fetal hydrocephalus is often associated with hydromyelic central canal dilatation (hydrocephalomyelia 18 ), few studies have correlated the pathophysiology of hydromyelia with changes in associated hydrocephalus, including postshunting cases. This study

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Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus

Low incidence in very low birth weight neonates with intraventricular hemorrhage

Laura R. Ment, Charles C. Duncan, David T. Scott, and Richard A. Ehrenkranz

I ntraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), or hemorrhage into the germinal matrix tissues (GMH) of the developing brain, is a major problem of preterm neonates; over 40% of infants with birth weights less than 1500 gm have been found to experience either or both disorders (GMH/IVH). 4, 9, 16, 25, 27, 31, 35 In addition to seizures and long-term neurodevelopmental handicaps, infants with IVH are at risk for posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH). 10, 18, 27, 37 The hydrocephalus is generally believed secondary to obliterative posterior fossa arachnoiditis which is

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David D. Cochrane and S. Terence Myles

–152, 1976 10.1016/0002-9378(76)90266-0 11. Freeman RK , McQuown DS , Secrist LJ , et al : The diagnosis of fetal hydrocephalus before viability. Obstet Gynecol 49 : 109 – 112 , 1977 Freeman RK, McQuown DS, Secrist LJ, et al: The diagnosis of fetal hydrocephalus before viability. Obstet Gynecol 49: 109–112, 1977 12. Garrett WJ , Fisher CC , Kossoff G : Hydrocephaly, microcephaly and anencephaly diagnosed in pregnancy by ultrasonic echography. Med J Aust 2 : 587 – 589 , 1975

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External hydrocephalus in adults

Report of three cases

érico R. Cardoso and Romaine Schubert

T he clinical entity known as external hydrocephalus is well recognized in infants. Symptomatic external hydrocephalus has not yet been described in adults. We report three adult patients who developed symptomatic extraaxial fluid collections following intracranial hemorrhage. Case Reports Case 1 This 53-year-old normotensive man presented with a 1-day history of occipital headache and photophobia. Examination The patient's neurological examination was normal with the exception of mild stiff neck. He had mild leukocytosis and hyponatremia

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Melanosis and hydrocephalus

Report of four cases

Richard A. Humes, Jacqueline Roskamp, and Arthur B. Eisenbrey

nevi and melanosis of the leptomeninges. The nevi have been classically described as being found in a predominantly bathing trunk distribution. Some of these patients have congenital hydrocephalus. 1, 3 The pathogenesis of this association is not always clear. Obstruction to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow or absorption by melanocyte infiltration into the leptomeninges at the arachnoid villi or the cisterna magna is a highly probable source of the hydrocephalus in some cases. In others, no such infiltration is evident. We describe four children with extensive

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Gerard J. Holtzer and Samuel A. de Lange

W e classify a case of hydrocephalus as “arrested” if the ventricular size is no longer increasing and the CSF pressure is normal. If an arrest is brought about by a shunt procedure we apply the term “shunt-dependent arrest.” If the arrest persists even if the shunt no longer functions or is removed, we call it a “shunt-independent arrest.” This study reports an analysis of 34 patients with shunt-independent arrest to determine a common factor for the arrest. Clinical Material and Methods Patients Studied Between 1959 and 1970, 202 infants with

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Timir Banerjee

S everal secondary manifestations of regional brain damage in severe hydrocephalus have been described. 1, 4, 5, 10, 11 I wish to report a case in which shunt malfunction led to the development of an abnormal movement disorder that was reversible by revision of the shunt. In review of the literature, I did not encounter a similar case report. Case Report Medical History . In July, 1956, a 4-year-old boy presented with headaches. A tentative diagnosis of craniopharyngioma was made owing to the presence of calcification in the suprasellar area. In January

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Ørnulf Jaer, Aagot Christie Løken, and Ragnar Nesbakken

papilledema. No other neurological signs were found. Plain skull films and brain scan ( 99 Tc pertechnetate) were both normal. Bilateral carotid and vertebral angiographic studies suggested supratentorial hydrocephalus. During ventriculography through a right-sided frontal burr hole, the Silastic catheter diverted unexpectedly into the left frontal horn. The air filled an enlarged left lateral ventricle, but no air passed to the third or to the right lateral ventricles. Dimer-X * (3 ml) was then injected through the Silastic tube and outlined an expanding lesion in the

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Hydrocephalus in cerebral cysticercosis

Pathogenic and therapeutic considerations

Ramiro D. Lobato, Eduardo Lamas, Jaime M. Portillo, Ricardo Roger, Javier Esparza, Juan J. Rivas, and Maria J. Muñoz

cases of hydrocephalus secondary to cerebral cysticercosis. Clinical Material and Methods The 11 cases reported here represent nearly half of the total series of patients with neurocysticercosis seen in our hospital in a 7-year period (1974 to 1980). The remainder of the cases had purely parenchymatous infestation and presented with epilepsy but without hydrocephalus. All these patients had lived for a time in certain areas of Spain in which cysticercosis was still endemic. Apart from the routine laboratory tests, most patients underwent electroencephalography

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Hydrocephalus and infratentorial tumors

Incidence, clinical picture, and treatment

Anthony J. Raimondi and Tadanori Tomita

B rain tumors collectively represent the second most common tumor in children. 20, 23 Although the neoplasm itself causes symptoms and signs, the complicating secondary hydrocephalus is often responsible for the increased intracranial pressure (ICP), thus superimposing the clinical picture of “midline syndrome” 35 (an increase in ICP without lateralizing signs) upon those signs resulting from the destructive and compressive effects of the tumor. Accordingly, the child with hydrocephalus complicating a primary brain tumor may be considered to have two