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Jerald J. Bernstein, Anna V. Anagnostopoulos, Emily A. Hattwick, and Edward R. Laws Jr.

A lthough the pattern of spread of human malignant astrocytomas has been extensively studied from pathological material, 9, 11, 31–33 the method by which the transformed cells ultimately form these patterns is poorly understood. Clinically, malignant astrocytomas are considered to be nonmetastatic, although they tend to extend through the brain along parallel and intersecting white matter tracts and along basement membrane-lined surfaces such as blood vessels. 9, 11, 31–33 At biopsy, viable tumor cells can be retrieved not only from the central core of the

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Spencer S. Kellis, Paul A. House, Kyle E. Thomson, Richard Brown, and Bradley Greger

V arious approaches have been used successfully to correlate neuronal activity with specific movements. In some cases, this correlation has been sufficiently robust to drive the movement of an external device or cursor. 5 , 8 Approaches based on standard ECoG electrode arrays, used in most of the studies involving human subjects, have required the user of the device to focus on movement of different body parts. This requires participants to use nonintuitive movements to control an external device. It is possible that such nonintuitive control signals have

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I-Mei Siu, Betty M. Tyler, James X. Chen, Charles G. Eberhart, Ulrich-Wilhelm Thomale, Alessandro Olivi, George I. Jallo, Gregory J. Riggins, and Gary L. Gallia

, we sought to establish a new brainstem tumor model using a human glioblastoma line. Previous in vivo intracranial models of glioblastoma relied upon traditional adherent glioblastoma lines. However, these adherent glioblastoma lines give rise to well-demarcated, noninvasive tumors with little vascularization. Recently, glioblastoma stemlike neurosphere lines have been isolated and established from resected glioblastomas. These glioblastoma stemlike neurospheres are grown in serum-free media supplemented with the mitogens EGF and FGF-2, form continuously self

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Emma G. Duerden, Kirk W. Finnis, Terry M. Peters, and Abbas F. Sadikot

K nowledge of the exact location and somatotopic organization of the motor fibers in the IC in subcortical areas is important for the basic understanding of the anatomy of the human motor system, surgical planning adjacent to the IC, and interpretation of neurological deficits and functional recovery following IC damage resulting from ischemia, edema, hemorrhage, or mass lesions. The position and somatotopic organization of motor responses resulting from focused electrical stimulation in or adjacent to the IC during stereotactic functional neurosurgery can

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Angad S. Gogia, Roberto Martin Del Campo-Vera, Kuang-Hsuan Chen, Rinu Sebastian, George Nune, Daniel R. Kramer, Morgan B. Lee, Ali R. Tafreshi, Michael F. Barbaro, Charles Y. Liu, Spencer Kellis, and Brian Lee

successfully as a neural source in human motor BCI. 16 , 17 , 25 Given the success of utilizing higher-order brain areas beyond the motor cortex in motor BCI, it is possible that other brain areas involved in the motor system may also provide suitable targets for recording and decoding aspects of movement. One such area is the amygdala, consisting of a complex set of medial temporal lobe nuclei, best known for its role in processing fearful stimuli. 26–28 However, there is emerging evidence that the amygdala may also modulate the motor system in humans. 29 It is

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Pierluigi Longatti, Andrea Porzionato, Luca Basaldella, Alessandro Fiorindi, Pietro De Caro, and Alberto Feletti

T he Swedish anatomist Magnus Gustav Retzius (1842–1919) first defined the human area postrema (AP) in 1896 as a median spongy structure strategically positioned at the level of the Magendie foramen ( Fig. 1 ). 25 The AP is one of the main circumventricular organs, a group of ventricular anatomical structures that perform reciprocal receptorial functions between the central nervous system and the organism. 1 , 3 The structural body of the AP consists of a loose neuroglial network crossed by numerous blood vessels that give rise to a widely anastomosed

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Neurosurgical Forum: Letters to the Editor To The Editor Michael A. Rie , M.D. Brenda G. Fahy , M.D., F.C.C.M. University of Kentucky Medical Center Lexington, Kentucky W. Andrew Kofke , M.D., M.B.A., F.C.C.M. Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 564 566 Abstract Object. Human albumin is used to induce hypervolemia (central venous pressure [CVP] > 8 mm Hg) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Unfortunately, human albumin may increase the

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Neurosurgical Forum: Letters to the Editor To The Editor Michael A. Rie , M.D. Brenda G. Fahy , M.D., F.C.C.M. University of Kentucky Medical Center Lexington, Kentucky W. Andrew Kofke , M.D., M.B.A., F.C.C.M. Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 564 566 Abstract Object. Human albumin is used to induce hypervolemia (central venous pressure [CVP] > 8 mm Hg) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Unfortunately, human albumin may increase the

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Lawrence C. Dempsey and Surl L. Nielsen

C urrent reexamination of cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in normal and hydrocephalic states has generated new interest in the ultrastructure of human ependyma. In this paper we depict for the first time the ciliated appearance of human lateral ventricles as delineated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Materials and Methods An 8-year-old boy with sepsis and pneumonitis suffered a respiratory arrest and died. Within 2 hours of death, multiple 2 × 2 mm sections were taken at autopsy from the lateral ventricular walls and immersed for 12 hours in 3

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Giorgio Macchi and Edward G. Jones

T his review raises the prospect of agreement on terminology that may be applied to one of the most intriguing but confusing regions of the human thalamus: the so-called motor thalamus ( Fig. 1 ), although the term “motor” may not be entirely apposite. It is our hope that this work may serve as a tentative scheme to reconcile the different perspectives on the region adopted by neurologists and neurosurgeons in humans and by neuroanatomists and neurophysiologists in nonhuman primates. In devising the present scheme, we have compared the classifications of the