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Dominic A. Harris, Abigail J. Fong, Edward P. Buchanan, Laura Monson, David Khechoyan, and Sandi Lam

S urgeons have long searched for an ideal material to use in skull reconstruction. Ideally, it should be widely available, low in cost, and easy to mold during surgery, yet strong and durable in its final form. 14 , 30 While autologous bone is widely used and favored in contemporary reconstructive procedures, synthetic alternatives have been used throughout history and are necessary in current practice for select cases when autograft reconstruction is not an option (such as cases with severe bony comminution, bone graft resorption, infection, and limited

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Visish M. Srinivasan, Brent R. O'Neill, Diana Jho, Donald M. Whiting, and Michael Y. Oh

Alexander Monro secundus. Monro's understanding of CSF dynamics and flow paved the way for the explorations of CSF drainage in the following century. Image courtesy of the NIH/National Library of Medicine. The histories of hydrocephalus 29 and third ventriculostomy 58 have been recently reviewed. External ventricular drainage, one of the most common neurosurgical procedures, has a long and rich history that has not been previously examined. External ventricular drainage was first documented by Claude-Nicolas Le Cat (1700–1768) in October 1744. 25 He performed a

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Srinivas Chivukula, Ramesh Grandhi, and Robert M. Friedlander

substances and techniques used in early neuroanesthesia until the discovery of ether and chloroform in the 19th century. Because no history of neuroanesthesia can be told without the associated surgical context (and vice versa), we also discuss the relevant neurosurgical advances that paralleled the refinements and developments in anesthesia over the ages. F ig . 1. Removal of a head and neck tumor by Dr. John C. Warren from a patient, Edward G. Abbott, under the influence of ether anesthesia in the “Ether Dome” amphitheater at the Massachusetts General Hospital on

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Jiro Nudeshima and Takaomi Taira

I n Japan, there has been no neurosurgical treatment for psychiatric disorders since the 1970s. A discussion about this field of functional neurosurgery can often be regarded as dangerous, even today. This is mainly due to the results of aggressive protest events in the 1960s and 1970s in Japan. However, such historical background is not widely known in abroad. In this brief note, we would like to introduce the history of psychosurgery and its consequences in Japan. The Beginning of Psychosurgery in Japan In November 1938, the first psychosurgical procedure in

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Claire Karekezi, Nqobile Thango, Salamat Ahuoiza Aliu-Ibrahim, Hajar Bechri, Espérance Maman You Broalet, Mouna Bougrine, Jebet Beverly Cheserem, Maguette Mbaye, Zarina Ali Shabhay, Nabila Tighilt, Souad Bakhti, and Najia El Abbadi

registered female neurosurgeons, the total being 18, and is ranked third on the continent after Algeria and Morocco. The rest of Africa is still underrepresented, with some countries without a single practicing neurosurgeon, male or female. It is encouraging to see that numbers are rising; Western Africa currently accounts for a total of 14 WIN, and Central Africa and Eastern Africa have 8 and 15, respectively. In this historical review, we provide an overview of the history and current status of women neurosurgeons on the African continent. Methods The study is an audit

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Visish M. Srinivasan, Caroline C. Hadley, Akash J. Patel, Bruce L. Ehni, Howard L. Weiner, Ganesh Rao, Frederick F. Lang Jr., Raymond E. Sawaya, and Daniel Yoshor

occurred in the history of American academic medicine. 32 Dr. DeBakey, who was 96 at the time, was deeply saddened by the separation of the two institutions that he had brought to prominence over the course of his storied career. 33 A recent publication titled “The History of Neurosurgery at Houston Methodist Hospital” further details the history of the BCM-Methodist affiliation and the ongoing history of neurosurgery at Houston Methodist. 34 Following the separation, Dr. Grossman made strong efforts to preserve the clinical group practice at Methodist. Nearly the

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Naif M. Alotaibi, Daipayan Guha, Christopher S. Ahuja, Julian Spears, Paul J. Muller, William S. Tucker, Alan R. Hudson, and R. Loch Macdonald

F or more than 90 years, the Division of Neurosurgery at the University of Toronto has been training and educating neurosurgeons from all over the world. 3 Currently, neurosurgery is an established specialty in 4 teaching hospitals affiliated with the University of Toronto (St. Michael's Hospital, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto Western Hospital, and the Hospital for Sick Children). Each hospital embraces a rich history of surgical expertise and provides diverse patient encounters for residents and fellows. 15 , 25 In this report, we describe the

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Gautam U. Mehta, Russell R. Lonser, and Edward H. Oldfield

understand the history of pituitary surgery for CD and the factors underlying the delay in its acceptance. Pituitary Surgery for CD Harvey Cushing (Description of CD) Harvey Cushing was an early advocate of pituitary surgery and many contemporary pituitary surgeons can trace their professional lineage to him and his trainees. 31 Cushing first attributed the clinical syndrome of cortisol excess to basophilic adenomas of the pituitary gland. 15 Despite the fact that Cushing correctly identified the cause of CD, he never operated on the pituitary gland of a

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D. Ryan Ormond and Costas G. Hadjipanayis

T he history of neurosurgery is filled with courageous individuals who worked against great odds in an attempt to improve the lives of their patients. For centuries, the realm of neurosurgery was considered an arena mostly of observation and “primum non nocere,” as surgical outcomes were often worse than disease progression. The Hippocratic School was the first to codify treatment for head injury in De capitis vulneribus , with skull fractures being classified by type and the severity of injury determining the need for trephination (the worse the injury

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Shaheryar F. Ansari, Nicholas G. Gianaris, and Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol

government. His efforts in this area earned him national prestige and served as the impetus for his presidential campaign in 1920. 1 With a reputation as a man of competence and a history of effective but brutal management in Cuba and the Philippines, Wood was not welcome in the political establishment of post–World War I America, perhaps because of his close association with Roosevelt and well-known espousal of military preparedness. As the 1920 presidential primaries began, Wood seemed to be a strong candidate behind whom most of the nation might rally, despite the