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Steven Rowson, Ray W. Daniel and Stefan M. Duma

and comparing helmet impact performance. In 2003, Pellman et al. 15 reconstructed concussive impacts in the NFL from game film by using crash test dummies. Through analysis of these data, they later went on to develop test protocols in which a linear impactor was used to address helmet performance in reducing concussion risk in football. They concluded that superior impact performance was associated with helmets that had thicker padding and fuller coverage. 16 Using similar test protocols, researchers investigated how helmet performance had improved between 1970

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Jaiho Chung, Sook Young Sim and Soo Han Yoon

. 5 Recently, the introduction of molding-helmet therapy has afforded a non-surgical alternative that is safer and easier to perform. 25 , 28 , 41 Clarren, et al., 8 developed the first molding helmet that passively led to compensatory growth because of the flat area of the skull no longer was compressed. Ripley, et al., 41 revised the molding helmet not only to prevent compression of the flat area but also to compress the protuberant area. This helmet is the so-called active or dynamic orthosis. The materials used in these molding helmets are hard, however

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Rebecca Y. Du, Melissa A. LoPresti, Roxanna M. García and Sandi Lam

approximately 14,000 deaths from road traffic injuries in Vietnam per year, 70% were related to motorcycles, of which 78% were attributed to head injuries. 45 One estimate found that 40.2% of pediatric patients with head trauma in urban areas in the US were injured as bicyclists. 19 Overall, RTAs are the most frequent cause of severe TBI and of TBI among younger populations worldwide. 61 Helmet use can greatly decrease the morbidity and mortality from RTAs. A Cochrane review found that helmets reduced the risk of head, brain, and severe traumatic brain injury for all ages

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index > 70). There were no cases of intraoperative death, infection, hemorrhage, or venous sinus injury. Conclusions. Analysis of the results indicates that use of the aforedescribed procedure in the early treatment of infants with sagittal synostosis provides excellent outcomes and that the morbidity rate is lower than that associated with traditional cranial vault reconstruction. Detailed anthropometric and radiographic analyses demonstrated that with adequate helmet therapy in our patients normocephaly was achieved and maintained without the need for secondary

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index > 70). There were no cases of intraoperative death, infection, hemorrhage, or venous sinus injury. Conclusions. Analysis of the results indicates that use of the aforedescribed procedure in the early treatment of infants with sagittal synostosis provides excellent outcomes and that the morbidity rate is lower than that associated with traditional cranial vault reconstruction. Detailed anthropometric and radiographic analyses demonstrated that with adequate helmet therapy in our patients normocephaly was achieved and maintained without the need for secondary

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Blaine Hoshizaki, Michael Vassilyadi, Andrew Post and Anna Oeur

and social costs, helmets are commonly used. Helmet use is generally reported to be between 0% and 5%, with one study from Sweden reporting usage of up to 16%. 4 Increased awareness to the risk and serious implications of head injuries and the benefits of helmets in preventing them has resulted in greater helmet use in winter activities in North America. Currently, there is no certified winter recreational helmet available, so parents use what is available. There are 2 basic mechanisms that describe how heads and brains are injured. The first involves the head

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Je Yeong Sone, Douglas Kondziolka, Jason H. Huang and Uzma Samadani

T he most prevalent method of preventing or minimizing traumatic brain injury (TBI) is helmet use. Helmets are one of the earliest and most enduring methods of personal protection in the history of human civilization. They provide protection from head trauma by absorbing the impact energy and diffusing and displacing peak impact and pressure gradient to a greater surface area of the head, rather than to a localized region. 76 History of Pre-20th–Century Helmets Since the helmet's inception, the vast majority have been designed for ceremonial uses and

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Steven Rowson, Stefan M. Duma, Richard M. Greenwald, Jonathan G. Beckwith, Jeffrey J. Chu, Kevin M. Guskiewicz, Jason P. Mihalik, Joseph J. Crisco, Bethany J. Wilcox, Thomas W. McAllister, Arthur C. Maerlender, Steven P. Broglio, Brock Schnebel, Scott Anderson and P. Gunnar Brolinson

there is general agreement among experts that concussion incidence can be reduced through rule changes and teaching proper tackling technique, there remains debate as to whether helmet design may also reduce the incidence of concussion. 4 , 11 This question is examined retrospectively by analyzing head impact exposure data collected from a population of collegiate football players equipped with 2 different helmet models. Methods Study Population and Data Collection Between 2005 and 2010, a total of 1833 football players were instrumented with helmet

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Jo Ling Goh, David F. Bauer, Susan R. Durham and Mitchell A. Stotland

cranial helmet, cranial orthosis, or cranial band. These devices were first described in the scientific literature by Clarren et al. in 1979. 4 However, the idea of using artificial cranial deformation was conceived at least 30,000 years ago in ancient Peru, 2 where infant skulls were artificially shaped using external compression with fixed boards and pads 2 or ritual head wrapping. 25 Modern-day cranial orthotic devices use that same principle. They are usually custom fit and molded to allow for growth in certain regions of the cranium and concomitant growth

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Huan Wang, William Olivero, Giuseppe Lanzino, William Elkins, Jean Rose, Debra Honings, Mary Rodde, Jan Burnham and David Wang

from the scientific and medical communities. To maximize neuroprotection yet minimize systemic complications, ultra-early delivery of selective cerebral hypothermia by EMS personnel in the field would be advantageous. We (W.E. and H.W.) have developed a cooling helmet ( Fig. 1 ) by using NASA spinoff technology. In this study we examine its effectiveness in lowering brain temperature in patients with severe stroke or head injury. Clinical Material and Methods Study Design This study was designed as a randomized, controlled trial. The protocol and consent