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Mladen Djurasovic, Steven Glassman, Jeffrey L. Gum, Charles H. Crawford III, R. Kirk Owens II and Leah Y. Carreon

unclear whether the presence of lower-extremity arthritis will compromise results. Strong, pain-free, and functional lower extremities are important for rehabilitation and recovery after lumbar fusion. In addition, patient-reported outcomes (PROs), which measure disease-specific and generic health-related quality of life after lumbar surgery, such as the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) 7 and EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D), 8 have components that could be dramatically affected by lower-extremity arthritis, such as pain, mobility, and self-care. It is unclear whether lumbar fusion

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Daniel Hansen, Aditya Vedantam, Valentina Briceño, Sandi K. Lam, Thomas G. Luerssen and Andrew Jea

Voice Handicap Index ILK-MARSYS KINDL VAS Child Health Questionnaire–Parent Form 50 (CHQ-PF50) Dev Profile II SF-36 15D Child Health and Illness Profile–Adolescent edition TNO-AZL questionnaire for Adult's Health-Related Quality of Life OSA-18 Quality of Life Questionnaire KIDSCREEN-10 Index Score SF-12 Impact of Childhood Illness Preschool Children Quality of Life Child Health Utility 9D WHOQOL-BREF Dev

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Marcel F. Dvorak, Michael G. Johnson, Michael Boyd, Garth Johnson, Brian K. Kwon and Charles G. Fisher

/NASS = American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons/North American Spine Society ; HRQOL = health-related quality of life ; LOS = length of stay ; MC = mental component ; PC = physical component ; SD = standard deviation ; SF-36 = Short Form—36 . References 1. Ersmark H , Kalen R : Injuries of the atlas and axis. A follow-up study of 85 axis and 10 atlas fractures. Clin Orthop 217 : 257 – 260 , 1987 Ersmark H, Kalen R: Injuries of the atlas and axis. A follow-up study

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Kelly Russell, Erin Selci, Brian Black and Michael J. Ellis

R ecently , health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has emerged as an important outcome measure in clinical and research studies among children and adolescents with a variety of acute and chronic medical conditions. HRQOL is a multidimensional patient-reported outcome that aims to measure the effect of a medical condition on the patient’s perceptions of his or her physical, mental, and social functioning. 36 Among the suggested advantages of incorporating HRQOL measures into clinical practice and research is the opportunity to evaluate the “hidden morbidity” or

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Sayf S. A. Faraj, Marinus De Kleuver, Alba Vila-Casademunt, Roderick M. Holewijn, Ibrahim Obeid, Emre Acaroğlu, Ahmet Alanay, Frank Kleinstück, Francisco S. Pérez-Grueso and Ferran Pellisé

[PI−LL]) associated with clinical outcome measures in ASD. This classification features strengths, including a high intrarater agreement, substantial interrater agreement, and validation in large ASD patient cohorts. 14 , 23 However, this classification was developed based on a broad range of radiographic abnormalities and different etiologies of ASD. Recent studies have challenged this presumed impact of sagittal spinopelvic malalignment on health status and demonstrated weak correlations with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) when limiting ASD to DNDLS. 3

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Anne Henriette Paulsen, Tryggve Lundar and Karl-Fredrik Lindegaard

14 : 61 – 65 , 1965 9 Mazza C , Pasqualin A , Da Pian R : Results of treatment with ventriculoatrial and ventriculoperitoneal shunt in infantile nontumoral hydrocephalus . Childs Brain 7 : 1 – 14 , 1980 10 Paulsen AH , Lundar T , Lindegaard KF : Twenty-year outcome in young adults with childhood hydrocephalus: assessment of surgical outcome, work participation, and health-related quality of life . J Neurosurg Pediatr 6 : 527 – 535 , 2010 11 Persson EK , Lindquist B , Uvebrant P , Fernell E : Very long-term follow-up of

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Yoji Ogura, Yoshio Shinozaki, Yoshiomi Kobayashi, Takahiro Kitagawa, Yoshiro Yonezawa, Yohei Takahashi, Kodai Yoshida, Akimasa Yasuda and Jun Ogawa

L umbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a common lumbar degenerative disease that causes leg pain, intermittent claudication, low-back pain (LBP), and even bowel and bladder dysfunction. Patients with LSS generally bend forward, which increases the spinal canal space, thereby relieving symptoms. Thus, patients with LSS generally tend to have a positive sagittal vertical axis (SVA). 6 , 14 It is widely known that SVA is correlated with clinical outcome, LBP, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with lumbar degenerative diseases, especially in those

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Toru Doi, Hideki Nakamoto, Koji Nakajima, Shima Hirai, Yusuke Sato, So Kato, Yuki Taniguchi, Yoshitaka Matsubayashi, Ko Matsudaira, Katsushi Takeshita, Sakae Tanaka and Yasushi Oshima

C ervical compressive myelopathy is a common cause of nontraumatic impairment of motor, sensory, and bladder functions and adversely affects a patient’s activities of daily living (ADLs) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). 3 , 6 , 16 Surgical treatment is often used to manage patients with progressive symptoms, and its effectiveness has been reported. 1 , 11 , 20 Although surgical decompression, including laminoplasty and laminectomy, and decompression and fusion are established procedures to improve patients’ functional status and HRQOL, several

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Brandon G. Rocque, E. Ralee' Bishop, Mallory A. Scogin, Betsy D. Hopson, Anastasia A. Arynchyna, Christina J. Boddiford, Chevis N. Shannon and Jeffrey P. Blount

outcomes in patients with spina bifida. 20 , 22 As such, the importance of studying health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in addition to traditional outcome measures in the spina bifida population is being increasingly recognized. 18 HRQOL focuses on how each patient assesses the influence of a chronic health issue on his/her physical and psychosocial functioning. 17 , 21 The goal of the present study was to characterize the quality of life (QOL) of pediatric patients with spina bifida who were seen at a multidisciplinary, comprehensive outpatient clinic within a

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Anja Kutscher, Ulf Nestler, Matthias K. Bernhard, Andreas Merkenschlager, Ulrich Thome, Wieland Kiess, Stefan Schob, Juergen Meixensberger and Matthias Preuss

on long-term health-related quality of life (HRQOL). It is performed as an addition to the recently published comprehensive analysis of social, educational, surgical, and neurological outcomes of a larger cohort of 68 patients. 8 Methods During a 12-month period between 2013 and 2014, patients were selected who presented in the Neurosurgical Hydrocephalus Outpatient clinic and fulfilled the following criteria: congenital hydrocephalus treated within the 1st year of life, continuous follow-up, and minimum age at time of reassessment of 25 years. All patients