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Ángela Ros-Sanjuán, Sara Iglesias-Moroño, Bienvenido Ros-López, Francisca Rius-Díaz, Andrea Delgado-Babiano, and Miguel Ángel Arráez-Sánchez

Study (IIHS): 5-year health outcome results of a prospective, multicenter comparison of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) and shunt for infant hydrocephalus . Childs Nerv Syst . 2018 ; 34 ( 12 ): 2391 – 2397 . 13 Kulkarni AV , Shams I , Cochrane DD , McNeely PD . Quality of life after endoscopic third ventriculostomy and cerebrospinal fluid shunting: an adjusted multivariable analysis in a large cohort . J Neurosurg Pediatr . 2010 ; 6 ( 1 ): 11 – 16 . 14 Droste DW , Krauss JK , Berger W , Rhythmic oscillations with a wavelength of 0

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Abhaya V. Kulkarni and Iffat Shams

I t is well known anecdotally that the long-term health outcome and QOL of children with hydrocephalus is highly variable. There are those children who, despite their condition, lead seemingly near-normal lives, whereas others are severely incapacitated and suffer from physical, cognitive, or social and emotional deficits. What has not yet been well established is which factors determine this ultimate outcome. Can we predict how children presenting with hydrocephalus will do in the long term? What are the features of their medical history that have led

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Abhaya V. Kulkarni, Ruth Donnelly, and Iffat Shams

undergone either a neuropsychological or psychological-educational assessment within 1 year prior to participating in this study were excluded, because this could have resulted in artificially inflated scores. This protocol was approved by the hospital's research ethics board, and written consent and assent were obtained from all participating families. Assessment of HRQL The child's primary caregiver was asked to complete the HOQ. The HOQ is a 51-item questionnaire with proven reliability and validity in measuring health outcome in children with hydrocephalus. 17

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Abhaya V. Kulkarni, Iffat Shams, D. Douglas Cochrane, and P. Daniel McNeely

I : Comparing children's and parents' perspectives of health outcome in paediatric hydrocephalus . Dev Med Child Neurol 50 : 587 – 592 , 2008 9 Kulkarni AV , Cochrane DD , McNeely PD , Shams I : Medical, social, and economic factors associated with health-related quality of life in Canadian children with hydrocephalus . J Pediatr 153 : 689 – 695 , 2008 10 Kulkarni AV , Drake JM , Armstrong DC , Dirks PB : Measurement of ventricular size: reliability of the frontal and occipital horn ratio compared to subjective assessment

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Jeremy C. T. Fairbank

an intervention can be defined by the proportion of patients achieving such scores. 5 This is useful in clinical audit studies and in conveying to patients the probability of clinical “success,” as well as in research. In conclusion, the development of ODI variants has been a mixed blessing. The other copyright holders and I are determined to protect the reputation of the ODI by resisting further changes. The ODI is now included in the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement ( http://ichom.org ) as a well-validated international outcome measure

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Benjamin D. Kuhns, Daniel Lubelski, Matthew D. Alvin, Jason S. Taub, Matthew J. McGirt, Edward C. Benzel, and Thomas E. Mroz

EQ-5D is an instrument designed to measure and standardize health outcomes. Its values are transformed into an index value known as the quality-adjusted life year, which is a number between 0 and 1, where 1 is equivalent to 1 year in perfect health and 0 is equivalent to patient death. 10 The PDQ uses an 11-point (0–10) scale to assess how pain affects the patient's ability to function in 15 categories. It is subdivided into functional and psychosocial components, which are combined to give a total score with a maximum of 150 points (higher scores indicate greater

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Ricky H. Wong, Fabrice Smieliauskas, I-Wen Pan, and Sandi K. Lam

of making inferences from simple changes in fusion rates over the decade would suggest that introducing these procedures led to more fusions. More likely, some patients underwent these procedures rather than undergoing fusions, so the procedures actually reduced the number of fusions. But, simultaneously, an increase in the diagnosis of back pain and greater awareness of surgical options led to a growing number of fusions regardless. An interrupted time-series analysis (ITSA) is a quasi-experimental method for isolating the effect of an intervention on a health

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Darryl Lau, John E. Ziewacz, Hasan K. Siddiqi, Amanda Pelly, Stephen E. Sullivan, and Abdulrahman M. El-Sayed

obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, intrauterine fetal defects, stroke, and several other adverse health outcomes. 12 , 21 , 22 , 36 Of particular interest is a growing literature that has demonstrated that smoking may be associated with poorer surgical outcomes among various surgical specialties. 10 , 20 , 23 , 38 There are several proposed mechanisms by which smoking may influence surgical outcomes, and one of these is that the effect of nicotine and other residual chemicals from cigarettes may play a critical role in the ability of smoking to cause

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Cuong J. Bui, R. Shane Tubbs, Chevis N. Shannon, Leslie Acakpo-Satchivi, John C. Wellons III, Jeffrey P. Blount, and W. Jerry Oakes

Questionnaire . J Neurosurg 101 : 2 Suppl 134 – 140 , 2004 4 Kulkarni AV , Shams I : Long-term outcome in childhood hydrocephalus: a comparison of child and parental perceptions of health outcome . Cerebrospinal Fluid Res 3 : S34 , 2006 5 Lonton AP : The characteristics of patients with encephaloceles . Z Kinderchir 45 : 1 Suppl 18 – 19 , 1990 6 Lorber J , Schofield JK : The prognosis of occipital encephalocele . Z Kinderchir Grenzgeb 28 : 347 – 351 , 1979 7 Macfarlane R , Rutka JT , Armstrong D , Phillips J , Posnick J

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Markus Engquist, Håkan Löfgren, Birgitta Öberg, Anders Holtz, Anneli Peolsson, Anne Söderlund, Ludek Vavruch, and Bengt Lind

treatment. In this paper, we report the 5- to 8-year outcomes from our earlier study comparing surgery combined with physiotherapy and physiotherapy alone to treat cervical radiculopathy, with a focus on neck disability, patient global assessment, health outcome, and pain. Methods Sixty-three patients, 18–65 years old, with cervical radiculopathy who had elected surgical treatment at 3 Swedish spine centers were included in the study. Patients were provided with oral and written information about the study and signed informed consent forms. The Regional Ethical