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Steven J. Schiff, Brian K. Dunagan and Robert M. Worth

: Stimulus-dependent modulation of spike burst length in cat striate cortical cells. J Neurophysiol 78: 199–213, 1997 4. DeLong MR : Activity of pallidal neurons during movement. J Neurophysiol 34 : 414 – 427 , 1971 DeLong MR: Activity of pallidal neurons during movement. J Neurophysiol 34: 414–427, 1971 5. DeLong MR , Crutcher MD , Georgopoulos AP : Primate globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus: functional organization. J Neurophysiol 53 : 530 – 543 , 1985 DeLong MR, Crutcher MD

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Jamal M. Taha, Jacques Favre, Thomas K. Baumann and Kim J. Burchiel

T he characteristics and topographic localization of cells that respond to movement around a joint (kinesthetic cells) have been studied extensively in the globus pallidus (GP) of primates. Kinesthetic cells have been identified in normal monkeys and in monkeys rendered parkinsonian by the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). 6, 8 These cells were identified in the central, 8 posterior, 11 and ventrolateral 5 portions of the GP in both the lateral GP externus (GPe) and medial GP internus (GPi) pallidal segments. Kinesthetic cells

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Thomas J. Loher, Mustafa G. Hasdemir, Jean-Marc Burgunder and Joachim K. Krauss

: Dystonic tremor treated by unilateral pallidal deep brain stimulation after secondary failure of thalamic stimulation. Mov Disord 13 : 135 , 1998 (Abstract) Caputo E, Krack P, Tamma F, et al: Dystonic tremor treated by unilateral pallidal deep brain stimulation after secondary failure of thalamic stimulation. Mov Disord 13: 135, 1998 (Abstract) 4. Coubes P , Echenne B , Roubertie A , et al : Traitement de la dystonie généralisée a début précoce par stimulation chronique bilatérale des globus pallidus internes. A propos d'un case. Neurochirurgie 45

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Philippe Coubes, Laura Cif, Hassan El Fertit, Simone Hemm, Nathalie Vayssiere, Stephanie Serrat, Marie Christine Picot, Sylvie Tuffery, Mireille Claustres, Bernard Echenne and Philippe Frerebeau

primary torsion dystonias. Neurology 35: 73–77, 1985 7. Coubes P , Echenne B , Roubertie A , et al : Traitement de la dystonie généralisée à début précoce par stimulation chronique bilaterale des globus pallidus internes. A propos d'un cas. Neurochirurgie 45 : 139 – 144 , 1999 Coubes P, Echenne B, Roubertie A, et al: Traitement de la dystonie généralisée à début précoce par stimulation chronique bilaterale des globus pallidus internes. A propos d'un cas. Neurochirurgie 45: 139–144, 1999 8. Coubes P

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Nathalie Vayssiere, Niels van der Gaag, Laura Cif, Simone Hemm, Regis Verdier, Philippe Frerebeau and Philippe Coubes

, Roubertie A , et al : Traitement de la dystonie généralisée à debut précoce per stimulation chronique bilaterale des globus pallidus internes. A propus d'un cas. Neurochirurgie 45 : 139 – 144 , 1999 Coubes P, Echenne B, Roubertie A, et al: Traitement de la dystonie généralisée à debut précoce per stimulation chronique bilaterale des globus pallidus internes. A propus d'un cas. Neurochirurgie 45: 139–144, 1999 3. Coubes P , Roubertie A , Vayssiere N , et al : Treatment of DYT1-generalised dystonia by

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Brigitte Biolsi, Laura Cif, Hassan El Fertit, Santiago Gil Robles and Philippe Coubes

with secondary dystonia. 1 Very little data exist, however, regarding DBS treatment of other movement disorders, especially choreic syndromes. The abnormal movements associated with HD severely impair daily life, and treatment remains aimed at symptoms and relies on neuroleptics that provide little relief of choreic movements. In addition, the adverse effects associated with these pharmacological drugs are a dose-limiting factor. Recent reports have shown the efficiency of bilateral globus pallidus stimulation in treating symptoms of HD with a very short follow

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Mitsuhiro Ogura, Naoyuki Nakao, Ekini Nakai, Yuji Uematsu and Toru Itakura

ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus. Lancet 337: 403–406, 1991 4. Boraud T , Bezard E , Bioulac B , et al : High frequency stimulation of the internal Globus Pallidus (GPi) simultaneously improves parkinsonian symptoms and reduces the firing frequency of GPi neurons in the MPTP-treated monkey. Neurosci Lett 215 : 17 – 20 , 1996 Boraud T, Bezard E, Bioulac B, et al: High frequency stimulation of the internal Globus Pallidus (GPi) simultaneously improves parkinsonian symptoms and reduces the firing frequency of GPi

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Dunbar Alcindor, Michael Y. Oh, Susan Baser, Cindy Angle, Boyle C. Cheng and Donald Whiting

electrical stimulation of the internal globus pallidus . J Neurosurg Sci 47 : 52 – 55 , 2003 5 Coubes P , Cif L , El Fertit H , Hemm S , Vayssiere N , Serrat S , : Electrical stimulation of the globus pallidus internus in patients with primary generalized dystonia: long-term results . J Neurosurg 101 : 189 – 194 , 2004 6 Fahn S : Concept and classification of dystonia . Adv Neurol 50 : 1 – 8 , 1988 7 Fahn S , Bressman SB , Marsden CD : Classification of dystonia . Adv Neurol 78 : 1 – 10 , 1998 8 Goto S , Yamada K

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Yi Liu, Weina Li, Changhong Tan, Xi Liu, Xin Wang, Yuejiang Gui, Lu Qin, Fen Deng, Changlin Hu and Lifen Chen

disorders, such as PD, essential tremor, and dystonia. 31 , 35 DBS is currently the surgical procedure of choice in patients with advanced PD 14 , 45 to produce a functional lesion within a defined region of the brain. Increasingly, DBS is being used for mid- to late-stage, intractable PD. With optimized stimulation settings, DBS reduces the motor symptoms of tremor, limb rigidity, bradykinesia, and akinesia. 43 Two brain regions, the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the globus pallidus internus (GPi), have been stimulated to treat PD. Earlier studies performed in

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Joachim K. Krauss, Thomas J. Loher, Ralf Weigel, H. Holger Capelle, Sabine Weber and Jean-Marc Burgunder

M, et al: Life-threatening dystonia-dyskinesias in a child: successful treatment with bilateral pallidal stimulation. Mov Disord 15: 1010–1012, 2000 3. Bereznai B , Steude U , Seelos K , et al : Chronic high-frequency globus pallidus internus stimulation in different types of dystonia: a clinical, video, and MRI report of six patients presenting with segmental, cervical, and generalized dystonia. Mov Disord 17 : 138 – 144 , 2002 Bereznai B, Steude U, Seelos K, et al: Chronic high-frequency globus pallidus