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Marie-Therese Forster, Marion Behrens, Anna Cecilia Lawson McLean, Dorothea Isabella Nistor-Gallo, Miriam Weiss, and Stefanie Maurer

now reach higher education levels than men, 2 and even though the performance and efficiency of teams with an equal gender mix has been shown to be superior compared to male-dominated teams. 3 , 4 In medicine, the number of German female students has exceeded that of their male counterparts since 1998, with women accounting for 62.5% of medical students in 2019. However, this nearly equal distribution of gender in medical professions 5 is not reflected in academic medicine at the leadership level, in which women only hold 13% of leadership positions. 6 The

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Gail L. Kongable, Giuseppe Lanzino, Teresa P. Germanson, Laura L. Truskowski, Wayne M. Alves, James C. Torner, Neal F. Kassell, and the Participants

the general population. 2, 26, 28 It is believed that women of comparable age fare worse than men with respect to morbidity and mortality after SAH; 1, 9, 42 however, these observations remain controversial. 42 Particular interest in gender-related differences after aneurysmal SAH has been raised by a recent multicenter trial in which it became clear that the effect of the treatment under study was different between the two sexes. 25 An extensive analysis of gender-related differences in patients with aneurysmal SAH may improve understanding of those factors

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Katelyn Donaldson, Katherine E. Callahan, Aaron Gelinne, Wyll Everett, S. Elizabeth Ames, Ellen L. Air, and Susan R. Durham

medical specialties. 1 The gender gap in neurosurgery widens over the course of a neurosurgery career, as women currently compose only 7.4% of all practicing board-certified neurosurgeons within the US. 3 Female neurosurgeons have been shown to have a higher rate of attrition during residency and a lower rate of board certification than males, both factors that profoundly influence the gender distribution of the neurosurgical workforce. 4 , 5 Efforts to improve the gender gap in neurosurgery have recently been undertaken, as the benefits of diversity

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Susan R. Durham, Katelyn Donaldson, M. Sean Grady, and Deborah L. Benzil

important. Studies addressing gender bias during residency application in other medical subspecialties have found no clear evidence of gender bias in resident selection. 5 , 11 , 15 To date, there are no published studies on specific applicant characteristics, including gender, that are associated with match outcome among neurosurgery resident applicants. The purpose of this study is to determine which characteristics of neurosurgery residency applicants, including gender, are associated with a successful match outcome. Methods Study Population This study was approved by

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Julie Woodfield, Phillip Correia Copley, Mark Hughes, and Ellie Edlmann

investigating recruitment and retention in surgery identify mentorship, role models, departmental climate and culture, training experiences, and intensity of work as influential factors. 5–11 Representation at conferences is important for providing leadership and relevant role models. Conference participation also facilitates networking, collaboration, and career development. In addition, diverse representation may prevent bias in research, clinical practice, and agendas that do not necessarily represent the broad needs of the population. 12 We aimed to quantify the gender

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Rosemary T. Behmer Hansen, Nicole A. Silva, Rebecca Cuevas, Samantha Y. Cerasiello, Angela M. Richardson, Antonios Mammis, and Anil Nanda

S trides have been made in achieving gender parity as the medical literature has addressed the need for more women in the realm of organized neurosurgery. 1–11 Even though more than half of the students in US medical schools are women, smaller percentages of those graduates enter neurosurgical training, remain in academic neurosurgery, and complete fellowship training. 3 , 12 A white paper regarding neurosurgery residency retention rates by Women in Neurosurgery, called for by the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS), found that

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Scott L. Zuckerman, Gary S. Solomon, Jonathan A. Forbes, Richard F. Haase, Allen K. Sills, and Mark R. Lovell

collegiate women ( http://www.nfhs.org/Participation/HistoricalSearch.aspx ). 27 As female participation in sports has increased, the role of gender in SRC has emerged as a crucial area of study. Several studies have indicated gender differences with respect to SRC incidence, 8 , 13 , 15 , 28 symptom reporting, 2 , 5 , 7 , 8 , 20 , 29 , 31 and neurocognitive testing, 2 , 5 , 6 both in the baseline 1 , 3 , 7 , 34 and acute, postconcussion phases. In 2008, the third meeting of the CIS group was held in Zürich. 25 The CIS group delineated several “modifying” factors

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Birra Taha, Praneeth Sadda, Graham Winston, Eseosa Odigie, Cristina Londono, Jeffrey P. Greenfield, Susan C. Pannullo, and Caitlin Hoffman

women, lower than that of otolaryngology (36%), plastic surgery (41%), vascular surgery (34%), and thoracic surgery (27%). 6 Regarding faculty composition, while the number of female full professors in surgical departments has increased steadily over the past 20 years, it has increased at a significantly slower rate than female enrollment in surgical training programs. 7 While the gender representation discrepancy in academic promotion among senior faculty is likely multifactorial, several prior studies have suggested that a gender imbalance in academic publishing

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Mark A. MacLean, Charles J. Touchette, Jae H. Han, Sean D. Christie, and Gwynedd E. Pickett

P atient preference is an integral component of shared medical decision-making. 28 Preference-based care provides patients with the autonomy to understand and appreciate relevant information, weigh treatment options, and make informed decisions. 24 Despite the apparent utility of this model, many studies consistently document racial, ethnic, and gender disparities in the use of health services (we refer to gender as the socially acquired aspect of being male or female). 35 White males are frequently reported to receive better access to medical and surgical

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Uma V. Mahajan, Harsh Wadhwa, Parastou Fatemi, Samantha Xu, Judy Shan, Deborah L. Benzil, and Corinna C. Zygourakis

academic neurosurgery in particular, men outnumber women, and gender bias may serve as a barrier to academic advancement. 8 Publications are vital to academic advancement, 9 and recent studies have demonstrated a gender gap in high-impact medical journals 10 and academic surgery in particular. 11 Men who are associate and full professors in academic surgery publish nearly double to triple the number of papers compared with their female counterparts. 11 It is possible that bias, including unconscious bias, in the peer-review process contributes