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Tianyi Qian, Wenjing Zhou, Zhipei Ling, Shangkai Gao, Hesheng Liu, and Bo Hong

is a widely used but time-consuming procedure that often involves an exhaustive search using multiple pairs of electrodes combined with multiple stimulation parameters (for example, current intensity, frequency, pulse width) while patients perform various tasks. According to previous reports, 3 , 56 71% of patients receiving ECS may experienced after-discharges and other adverse reactions interfering with accurate mapping. 35 Functional MRI is another technology commonly used for presurgical functional mapping. 15 , 25 , 26 , 43 , 50 The basic approach is to

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Jan Coburger, Jari Karhu, Markus Bittl, and Nikolai J. Hopf

P reoperative functional mapping is a standard procedure for mapping central region tumors in adults. Modern, individually “tailored” craniotomies require precise preoperative planning. Functional information about the anatomical target area should be integrated in the navigation software to determine the least harmful trajectory to preserve function of eloquent areas and to achieve complete removal of tumors. Achieving these goals in the pediatric patient group poses unique challenges. 9 The most commonly used functional mapping technique in adults is

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Edward F. Chang, Aaron Clark, Justin S. Smith, Mei-Yin Polley, Susan M. Chang, Nicholas M. Barbaro, Andrew T. Parsa, Michael W. McDermott, and Mitchel S. Berger

application can affect long-term survival. We conducted a comprehensive review of a large cohort of 281 patients with LGGs that were treated surgically at our tertiary brain tumor referral center. The specific aims of this study were as follows: 1) to determine PFS and OS for patients with LGGs that infiltrate eloquent brain areas; 2) to determine if intraoperative functional mapping modifies the risk of progression or modifies duration of survival in patients with LGGs presumed to involve eloquent cortex based on preoperative imaging; and 3) to determine if functional

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Alessandro Della Puppa, Serena De Pellegrin, Elena d'Avella, Giorgio Gioffrè, Marina Munari, Marina Saladini, Elena Salillas, Renato Scienza, and Carlo Semenza

cortical and intraparietal sulcus areas in calculation processes. Cortical mapping was focused on multiplication and addition. Last, our findings were compared with those in the relevant literature. Methods Patient Enrollment Between December 2011 and April 2012, functional mapping for numerical processing tasks was offered to patients affected by brain tumors located in the right parietal area. Inclusion criteria were 1) a tumor located in the parietal lobe, 2) right-handedness assessment through the Italian version of the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, 19

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Emad Eskandar

significant improvement in clinical outcomes by minimizing the risk of neurological injury or enhancing the success of treating the underlying epilepsy. Disclosure The author reports no conflict of interest. Reference 1 Qian T , Zhou W , Ling Z , Gao S , Liu H , Hong B : Fast presurgical functional mapping using task-related intracranial high gamma activity. Laboratory investigation . J Neurosurg [epub ahead of print April 19, 2013. DOI: 10.3171/2013.2.JNS12843]

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Oren Sagher

calculation processing: intraoperative functional mapping of multiplication and addition in patients affected by a brain tumor. Clinical article . J Neurosurg [epub ahead of print August 9, 2013. DOI: 10.3171/2013.6.JNS122445]

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Daniel L. Silbergeld

I ntraoperative cortical mapping, using either electrical stimulation or somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP's), permits safer and more extensive cortical resections in the vicinity of essential cortex. 1 Functional mapping can help identify rolandic cortex, 1, 8 descending subcortical motor fibers, 1 lateral, 5, 6 basal, 4 and insular (DL Sibergeld, unpublished data) language areas, and the supplementary motor area. 7 However, a small durotomy may be desirable when significant cerebral swelling is present, especially in the awake patient when

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David P. McMullen, Tessy M. Thomas, Matthew S. Fifer, Daniel N. Candrea, Francesco V. Tenore, Robert W. Nickl, Eric A. Pohlmeyer, Christopher Coogan, Luke E. Osborn, Adam Schiavi, Teresa Wojtasiewicz, Chad R. Gordon, Adam B. Cohen, Nick F. Ramsey, Wouter Schellekens, Sliman J. Bensmaia, Gabriela L. Cantarero, Pablo A. Celnik, Brock A. Wester, William S. Anderson, and Nathan E. Crone

into closed-loop BMIs to improve motor control. 13 To guide implant placement within hand or arm representations in somatosensory cortex, BMI researchers have traditionally relied on preoperative neuroimaging in humans 14 , 15 or surgical atlases in nonhuman primates. 16 However, the development of fully dexterous neuroprostheses requires novel surgical approaches to precisely place stimulating electrode arrays in finger eloquent cortex. Online functional mapping (OFM) can provide high temporal and spatial information to clinicians to assist functional

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David P. McMullen, Tessy M. Thomas, Matthew S. Fifer, Daniel N. Candrea, Francesco V. Tenore, Robert W. Nickl, Eric A. Pohlmeyer, Christopher Coogan, Luke E. Osborn, Adam Schiavi, Teresa Wojtasiewicz, Chad R. Gordon, Adam B. Cohen, Nick F. Ramsey, Wouter Schellekens, Sliman J. Bensmaia, Gabriela L. Cantarero, Pablo A. Celnik, Brock A. Wester, William S. Anderson, and Nathan E. Crone

into closed-loop BMIs to improve motor control. 13 To guide implant placement within hand or arm representations in somatosensory cortex, BMI researchers have traditionally relied on preoperative neuroimaging in humans 14 , 15 or surgical atlases in nonhuman primates. 16 However, the development of fully dexterous neuroprostheses requires novel surgical approaches to precisely place stimulating electrode arrays in finger eloquent cortex. Online functional mapping (OFM) can provide high temporal and spatial information to clinicians to assist functional

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Bryan D. Choi, Daniel K. Lee, Jimmy C. Yang, Caroline M. Ayinon, Christine K. Lee, Douglas Maus, Bob S. Carter, Fred G. Barker II, Pamela S. Jones, Brian V. Nahed, Daniel P. Cahill, Reiner B. See, Mirela V. Simon, and William T. Curry

have become an integral part of our understanding of gliomas regarding molecular diagnosis and prognostication. 27 , 28 It is currently unknown whether certain biomarkers are associated with seizure propensity in patients undergoing intraoperative functional mapping. Studies designed to assess seizure incidence based on predisposing genetic factors may assist in better identifying patients at greatest risk of this complication and also provide insight into potential opportunities for therapeutic or prophylactic intervention. Here, we investigated factors associated