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Geert-Jan Rutten and Nick F. Ramsey

responses were obtained with stimulation over the left hemisphere. Subsequent functional hemispherectomy induced no new sensorimotor deficits. (Reprinted with permission from Rutten GJ et al: Interhemispheric reorganization of motor hand function to the primary motor cortex predicted with functional magnetic resonance imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation. J Child Neurol 17: 292–297, 2002, with permission from SAGE.) B: Perilesional reorganization of language functions in a patient with a low-grade glioma involving the classic language area of Broca (B1

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Neurosurgical Forum: Letters to the Editor To The Editor Richard Leblanc , M.D. , Robert Zatorre , Ph.D. McGill University Montreal, Quebec, Canada 316 317 We were interested to read the paper by Maldjian, et al. (Maldjian J, Atlas SW, Howard RD II, et al: Functional magnetic resonance imaging of regional brain activity in patients with intracerebral arteriovenous malformations before surgical or endovascular therapy. J Neurosurg 84: 477–483, March, 1996) in which the authors purport to

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Jesús Pujol, Gerardo Conesa, Joan Deus, Luis López-Obarrio, Fabián Isamat, and Antoni Capdevila

imaging of regional brain activity in patients with intracerebral gliomas: findings and implications for clinical management. Neurosurgery 38 : 329 – 338 , 1996 Atlas SW, Howard RS II, Maldjian J, et al: Functional magnetic resonance imaging of regional brain activity in patients with intracerebral gliomas: findings and implications for clinical management. Neurosurgery 38: 329–338, 1996 2. Berger MS , Ojemann GA : Techniques of functional localization during removal of tumors involving the cerebral hemispheres , in

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Nicole Petrovich, Andrei I. Holodny, Viviane Tabar, Denise D. Correa, Joy Hirsch, Philip H. Gutin, and Cameron W. Brennan

patients, because it requires sustained attention and head motion control over a much longer period of time. Two trials were performed for each block-designed run. Each run consisted of six stimulation epochs both preceded and followed by a baseline of equal length during which volunteers fixated on a cross-hair. The stimulation epoch consisted of 10 images, with the initial and final baselines lasting 13 images each. Control volunteer data acquisition procedures were the same as those described in Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Analysis in Patients

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Jesús Pujol, Gerardo Conesa, Joan Deus, Pere Vendrell, Fabián Isamat, Guillermo Zannoli, Josep L. Martí-Vilalta, and Antoni Capdevila

—dependent functional magnetic resonance images showing the selective activation of the sensorimotor cortex using the simple thumb-to-finger opposition task. Functional activity around the central sulcus was the most relevant finding in the picture. The red area is proportional to the activation consistency (t value) of the pixels. The oblique line in the sagittal view represents the anatomical level at which functional activity was assessed in healthy subjects. The functional sequence was a spoiled gradient recalled acquisition in a steady state (GRASS) (repetition time 100

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Charles J. Hodge Jr., Sean C. Huckins, Nikolaus M. Szeverenyi, Michael M. Fonte, Jacob G. Dubroff, and Krishna Davuluri

children with brain tumors. Neurosurgery 25: 786–792, 1989 10. Binder JR , Frost JA , Hammeke TA , et al : Human brain language areas identified by functional magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurosci 17 : 353 – 362 , 1997 Binder JR, Frost JA, Hammeke TA, et al: Human brain language areas identified by functional magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurosci 17: 353–362, 1997 11. Black PM , Ronner SF : Cortical mapping for defining the limits of tumor resection. Neurosurgery 20 : 914 – 919

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Hillary Shurtleff, Molly Warner, Andrew Poliakov, Brian Bournival, Dennis W. Shaw, Gisele Ishak, Tong Yang, Mahesh Karandikar, Russell P. Saneto, Samuel R. Browd, and Jeffrey G. Ojemann

fMRI . Neurology 60 : 1598 – 1605 , 2003 2 Atlas SW , Howard RS II , Maldjian J , Alsop D , Detre JA , Listerud J , : Functional magnetic resonance imaging of regional brain activity in patients with intracerebral gliomas: findings and implications for clinical management . Neurosurgery 38 : 329 – 338 , 1996 3 Baciu MV , Watson JM , Maccotta L , McDermott KB , Buckner RL , Gilliam FG , : Evaluating functional MRI procedures for assessing hemispheric language dominance in neurosurgical patients . Neuroradiology 47

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Derek L. G. Hill, Andrew D. Castellano Smith, Andrew Simmons, Calvin R. Maurer Jr., Timothy C. S. Cox, Robert Elwes, Michael Brammer, David J. Hawkes, and Charles E. Polkey

perceiving facial expressions of disgust. Nature 389 : 495 – 498 , 1997 Phillips ML, Young AW, Senior C, et al: A specific neural substrate for perceiving facial expressions of disgust. Nature 389: 495–498, 1997 18. Puce A , Constable RT , Luby ML , et al : Functional magnetic resonance imaging of sensory and motor cortex: comparison with electrophysiological localization. J Neurosurg 83 : 262 – 270 , 1995 Puce A, Constable RT, Luby ML, et al: Functional magnetic resonance imaging of sensory and motor cortex: comparison with electrophysiological

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Robert J. Ogg, Fred H. Laningham, Dave Clarke, Stephanie Einhaus, Ping Zou, Michael E. Tobias, and Frederick A. Boop

312 : 404 – 414 , 1991 15 Porter LL , Sakamoto T , Asanuma H : Morphological and physiological identification of neurons in the cat motor cortex which receive direct input from the somatic sensory cortex . Exp Brain Res 80 : 209 – 212 , 1990 16 Puce A , Constable RT , Luby ML , McCarthy G , Nobre AC , Spencer DD , : Functional magnetic resonance imaging of sensory and motor cortex: comparison with electrophysiological localization . J Neurosurg 83 : 262 – 270 , 1995 17 Sanes JN , Donoghue JP , Thangaraj V , Edelman

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Michael J. Schlosser, Marie Luby, Dennis D. Spencer, Issam A. Awad, and Gregory McCarthy

described. 29 Patients ranged in age from 9 to 61 years, and all but one were right handed. All patients were native English speakers who were not familiar with the Turkish language. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging The auditory comprehension task has been previously described. 29 Briefly, stimuli consisted of 112 digitized auditory segments, each consisting of one or two sentences lasting for a total duration of 4.8 to 5.8 seconds. Fifty-six of the segments were spoken in English, whereas the remaining 56 consisted of the same sentences spoken in Turkish. The same