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Peter T. Fox, Harold Burton and Marcus E. Raichle

a blood flow tracer. 16, 38 Consequently, multiple cortical sites can be mapped in individual subjects during relatively short (1- to 2-hour) imaging sessions. Functional brain mapping using PET images of CBF in both the resting state and the stimulated state has hitherto been limited to purely physiological investigations. Yet the speed, safety, and precision of this techtion. Suggest that it might also have clinical application. For example, response activation might be used to assess perfusion reserve 13, 28, 36 in patients with cerebrovascular disease or

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Richard Leblanc and Ernst Meyer

angiogram demonstrated decreased shunt flow through the lesion, and the patient underwent stereotactically focused irradiation of the AVM uneventfully. Follow-up angiography has not yet been obtained. Activation PET Scanning The patient underwent PET scanning 7 days before craniotomy. The surgeon was not informed of the results. Initial (baseline) noninvasive functional brain mapping was performed by measuring normalized regional cerebral blood flow using the intravenous oxygen-15 ( 15 O) water bolus technique 5, 10 and the PC-2048B PET scanner * with inplane

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Webster H. Pilcher, Daniel L. Silbergeld, Mitchel S. Berger and George A. Ojemann

required. 43 Lateralized abnormalities of memory performance in the intracarotid Amytal procedure have been reported to correlate with the extent of pathological involvement of mesial structures (particularly the hippocampus), 75 and may contribute to the localization of the epileptogenic zone in some patients. Intraoperative Assessment Intraoperative techniques have been described previously. 7 and include ultrasound-guided tumor localization, electrocorticographic (ECoG) monitoring to identify epileptogenic cortex, and functional brain mapping to identify

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Itzhak Fried, Valeriy I. Nenov, Steven G. Ojemann and Roger P. Woods

, 1993 Constable PT, McCarthy G, Allison T, et al: Functional brain imaging at 1.5 T using conventional gradient echo MR imaging techniques. Magn Reson Imaging 11: 451–459, 1993 10. Fox PT , Mintun MA , Raichle ME , et al : A noninvasive approach to quantitative functional brain mapping with H2 (15)O and positron emission tomography. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 4 : 329 – 333 , 1984 Fox PT, Mintun MA, Raichle ME, et al: A noninvasive approach to quantitative functional brain mapping with H2 (15)O and positron emission

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Jesús Pujol, Gerardo Conesa, Joan Deus, Pere Vendrell, Fabián Isamat, Guillermo Zannoli, Josep L. Martí-Vilalta and Antoni Capdevila

imaging in partial epilepsy. Epilepsia 35 : 1194 – 1198 , 1994 Morris GL III, Mueller WM, Yetkin FZ, et al: Functional magnetic resonance imaging in partial epilepsy. Epilepsia 35: 1194–1198, 1994 15. Ogawa S , Tank DW , Menon R , et al : Intrinsic signal changes accompanying sensory stimulation: functional brain mapping with magnetic resonance imaging. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89 : 5951 – 5955 , 1992 Ogawa S, Tank DW, Menon R, et al: Intrinsic signal changes accompanying sensory stimulation: functional

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Joseph Maldjian, Scott W. Atlas, Robert S. Howard II, Elizabeth Greenstein, David Alsop, John A. Detre, John Listerud, Mark D'Esposito and Eugene S. Flamm

: Intrinsic signal changes accompanying sensory stimulation: functional brain mapping with magnetic resonance imaging. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89 : 5951 – 5955 , 1992 Ogawa S, Tank DW, Menon R, et al: Intrinsic signal changes accompanying sensory stimulation: functional brain mapping with magnetic resonance imaging. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89: 5951–5955, 1992 24. Press WH , Teukolsky SA , Vetterling WT , et al : Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing. New York : Cambridge University Press , 1992

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Nobukazu Nakasato, Toshihiro Kumabe, Akitake Kanno, Satoru Ohtomo, Kazuo Mizoi and Takashi Yoshimoto

, magnetoencephalography (MEG) has been used to localize various types of brain functions, including somatosensory, visual, gustatory, and auditory. 10, 18, 20, 22, 31, 32 Magnetoencephalography provides a noninvasive method for functional brain mapping, with high resolutions in both the temporal (millisecond order) and spatial (millimeter order) dimensions. The magnetic counterpart of the AEP N100 wave in auditory evoked magnetic fields (AEFs) is called the N100m wave. The major advantage of AEF is that the bilateral activities can be clearly separated. For example, previous AEF

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Carl J. Sartorius and Mitchel S. Berger

. Intraoperative Technique The 22 patients comprising this study were selected from a large population of patients undergoing intraoperative functional brain mapping for tumor resection at the University of Washington Medical Center in Seattle, Washington or at St. Vincent's Hospital in Indianapolis, Indiana. All patients harbored intracranial tumors within or directly contiguous with language or sensorimotor regions, as determined by stimulation mapping, and many also had intractable epilepsy, which predisposed the cortex to a hyperexcitable state. All patients underwent

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Michael Schulder, Joseph A. Maldjian, Wen-Ching Liu, Andrei I. Holodny, Andrew T. Kalnin, In Ki Mun and Peter W. Carmel

AR , Hund M , Kronberg E , et al : The interactive use of magnetoencephalography in stereotactic image-guided neurosurgery. Neurosurgery 39 : 92 – 102 , 1996 Rezai AR, Hund M, Kronberg E, et al: The interactive use of magnetoencephalography in stereotactic image-guided neurosurgery. Neurosurgery 39: 92–102, 1996 31. Roberts TP , Rowley HA : Magnetic source imaging as a tool for presurgical functional brain mapping. Neurosurg Clin North Am 8 : 421 – 438 , 1997 Roberts TP, Rowley HA

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Yukihiko Fujii, Naoki Nakayama and Tsutomu Nakada

motions: application to diffusion and perfusion in neurologic disorders. Radiology 161 : 401 – 407 , 1986 Le Bihan D, Breton E, Lallemand D, et al: MR imaging of intravoxel incoherent motions: application to diffusion and perfusion in neurologic disorders. Radiology 161: 401–407, 1986 6. Ogawa S , Menon RS , Tank DW , et al : Functional brain mapping by blood oxygenation level—dependent contrast magnetic resonance imaging. A comparison of signal characteristics with a biophysical model. Biophys J 64 : 803