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Yoji Ogura, Jeffrey L. Gum, Alex Soroceanu, Alan H. Daniels, Breton Line, Themistocles Protopsaltis, Richard A. Hostin, Peter G. Passias, Douglas C. Burton, Justin S. Smith, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Virginie Lafage, Renaud Lafage, Eric O. Klineberg, Han Jo Kim, Andrew Harris, Khaled Kebaish, Frank Schwab, Shay Bess, Christopher P. Ames, Leah Y. Carreon and the International Spine Study Group (ISSG)

have a lot of questions preoperatively, and most of the questions are relatively common. The purpose of this study was to present a concise list of answers to these frequently asked questions (FAQs) to aid in the SDM process during the surgical counseling in patients with ASD. In this study, we intentionally used and analyzed a large, heterogeneous ASD population to provide generalized answers for SDM counseling. Methods Subjects From a prospective, multicenter ASD database, patients enrolled between 2008 and 2016 who underwent fusions of 5 or more levels with a

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Scott L. Zuckerman, Natalie Limoges, Aaron M. Yengo-Kahn, Christopher S. Graffeo, Lola B. Chambless, Rohan Chitale, J Mocco and Susan Durham


Residency interviews are integral to the recruitment process yet imperfect. Through surveys of neurosurgery residency applicants, the authors describe interview content and the perceived utility and stress of topics from the applicant’s perspective.


All 2018–2019 neurosurgery resident applicants applying to three particular programs were surveyed. Across 10 interview topics, survey questions assessed topic frequency and the applicant’s opinion of the utility and stress of each topic (Likert scale 1–5). Analyses included descriptive statistics, Spearman’s rank correlation, and logistic regression.


One hundred thirty-three of 265 surveyed US residency applicants (50%) responded. Extracurricular activities, research, future career, non-medicine interests, and small talk were discussed in all interviews. The least frequent topics included neurosurgical knowledge assessment (79%) and manual dexterity tests (45%). The most useful topics according to respondents were future career objectives (4.78 ± 0.49) and prior research (4.76 ± 0.50); the least useful were neurosurgical knowledge assessment (2.67 ± 1.09) and manual dexterity tests (2.95 ± 1.05). The most stressful topics were neurosurgical knowledge assessment (3.66 ± 1.23) and ethical/behavioral scenarios (2.94 ± 1.28). The utility and stress of manual dexterity tests and neurosurgical knowledge assessments were inversely correlated (r = −0.40, p < 0.01; r = −0.36, p < 0.01), whereas no such correlation existed for ethical/behavioral questions (r = −0.12, p = 0.18), indicating that ethical/behavioral questions may have been stressful but were potentially useful topics. Respondents who attended ≥ 15 interviews were more likely to be asked about the three most stressful topics (each p < 0.05). Respondents with children were less likely to be asked about ethical/behavioral scenarios (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.03–0.52, p < 0.01).


Applicants found several of the most frequently discussed topics to be less useful, indicating a potential disconnect between applicant opinion and the faculty’s preferred questions. Ethical/behavioral scenarios were rated as stressful but still useful, representing a potentially worthwhile type of question. These data provide several avenues for potential standardization and improvement of the interview process.

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Christine Park, Rasheedat T. Zakare-Fagbamila, Wes Dickson, Alessandra N. Garcia and Oren N. Gottfried

Experience Points System in hospital reimbursement . Health Aff (Millwood) . 2016 ; 35 ( 9 ): 1673 – 1680 . 6 Patient survey (HCAHPS) - National. Data.Medicare.Gov . Accessed May 28, 2020. 7 Vandenbroucke JP , von Elm E , Altman DG , Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE): explanation and elaboration . Int J Surg . 2014 ; 12 ( 12 ): 1500 – 1524 . 8 HCAHPS Frequently Asked Questions . Press Ganey . August 9, 2019 . Accessed May

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Nathan R. Selden, Valerie C. Anderson, Shirley McCartney, Thomas C. Origitano, Kim J. Burchiel and Nicholas M. Barbaro

Council for Graduate Medical Education : Frequently Asked Questions: Neurological Surgery ( ) [Accessed March 14, 2013] 2 Anderson RC , Kan P , Klimo P , Brockmeyer DL , Walker ML , Kestle JR : Complications of intracranial pressure monitoring in children with head trauma . J Neurosurg 101 : 1 Suppl 53 – 58 , 2004 3 Coplin WM , Avellino AM , Kim DK , Winn HR , Grady MS : Bacterial meningitis associated with lumbar drains: a retrospective cohort

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Christopher Miller, Paige Lundy and Sarah Woodrow

. 2019 ; 76 ( 6 ): 1588 – 1593 . 28 Operation Giving Back. American College of Surgeons . Accessed May 6, 2020. 29 Aarabi S , Smithers C , Fils MM , Global Surgery Fellowship: a model for surgical care and education in resource-poor countries . J Pediatr Surg . 2015 ; 50 ( 10 ): 1772 – 1775 . 30 ACGME Review Committee for Neurological Surgery . Frequently asked questions: neurological surgery . Accessed May 6, 2020.

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Darryl Lau, Anthony M. DiGiorgio, Andrew K. Chan, Cecilia L. Dalle Ore, Michael S. Virk, Dean Chou, Erica F. Bisson and Praveen V. Mummaneni

symptoms but may still have higher overall levels of pain and disability after surgery. One of the most frequently asked questions by patients and healthcare providers relates to expectations in when symptomology should improve and to what extent. In our cohort, most improvement occurred within the first 3 months postoperatively, and no remarkable improvement was observed following this time point, even up to 12 months. There was no significant difference in outcome scores between the 3- and 12-month marks. This is consistent with the work of Peolsson and Peolsson, who

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Victor E. Staartjes, Marlies P. de Wispelaere and Marc L. Schröder

within 3 weeks of surgery, because of potential liability. Patients were instructed not to undergo physical therapy during the first 3 months. 13 No restrictions on activities of daily living (ADL) were set. A patient-friendly website that includes a range of frequently asked questions (FAQs) and detailed information on the recovery process has been set up and is frequently visited by patients who have questions postoperatively. Furthermore, patients have a scheduled telephone call 2 days and 14 days after surgery to check on their status. Only fusion patients had a

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Jason F. Talbott, William D. Whetstone, William J. Readdy, Adam R. Ferguson, Jacqueline C. Bresnahan, Rajiv Saigal, Gregory W. J. Hawryluk, Michael S. Beattie, Marc C. Mabray, Jonathan Z. Pan, Geoffrey T. Manley and Sanjay S. Dhall

scores with those of the instructors. After the training, each rater was presented with a series of DICOM images including both the injury epicenter and adjacent normal-appearing spinal cord from 20 separate cases from our cohort with SCIs representing all levels of the BASIC scale. The cases were presented in random order. Also provided to each rater were a set of data-recording sheets, an overview of the project background and goals, a set of frequently asked questions with answers, and a score determination guide for ease of assigning scores. All participants then

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Brandon A. Sherrod and Brandon G. Rocque

.04.246 29 University of Alabama at Birmingham Institutional Review Board : Frequently asked questions: Is IRB review required for use of public datasets? . UAB Research ( ) [Accessed December 15, 2016] 30 von Lehe M , Kim HJ , Schramm J , Simon M : A comprehensive analysis of early outcomes and complication rates after 769 craniotomies in pediatric patients . Childs Nerv Syst 29 : 781 – 790 , 2013 10.1007/s00381-012-2006-3 31 Watson RS , Carcillo JA

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Brandon A. Sherrod, James M. Johnston and Brandon G. Rocque

of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program . J Am Coll Surg 216 : 420 – 427 , 2013 23 Tahiri Y , Fischer JP , Wink JD , Paine KM , Paliga JT , Bartlett SP , : Analysis of risk factors associated with 30-day readmissions following pediatric plastic surgery: a review of 5376 procedures . Plast Reconstr Surg 135 : 521 – 529 , 2015 24 University of Alabama at Birmingham Institutional Review Board : Frequently asked questions: Is IRB review required for use of public datasets? . UAB Research ( http