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The Lucite Calvarium—A Method for Direct Observation of the Brain

I. The Surgical and Lucite Processing Techniques

C. Hunter Shelden, Robert H. Pudenz, Joseph S. Restarski and Winchell McK. Craig

both temporal muscles are removed. This is accomplished by incising these tissues peripherally with the electrocautery and stripping with a periosteal elevator ( Fig. 2 ). It is essential to remove all of the periosteum. If this is not done the small adherent fragments of tissue will interfere with the hydrocolloid impression. A burr hole is placed in each lateral parietal area and enlarged until the desired defects in the bone are obtained ( Fig. 3 . A midline section of bone is left to maintain fixation of the falx cerebri as well as to retain the continuity of

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The Use of Products Prepared from Human Fibrinogen and Human Thrombin in Neurosurgery

Fibrin Foams as Hemostatic Agents; Fibrin Films in Repair of Dural Defects and in Prevention of Meningocerebral Adhesions

Franc D. Ingraham and Orville T. Bailey

formalin. After fixation for ten days, dissection was carried out so as to preserve the relationships of the meninges and the underlying cerebral tissue. This was accomplished by trimming the skull away bit by bit with rongeurs so that the dura was not torn and the site of operation disturbed as little as possible. The operative field and underlying cortex were then cut in thin blocks and refixed in ten per cent formalin. The blocks were embedded in paraffin and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Pieces of fibrin foam which had not been implanted in animals were fixed

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Murray A. Falconer and Dorothy S. Russell

cyst formation; these form a closely allied group. METHODS OF FIXATION AND STAINING The animal was killed with chloroform and was usually perfused through the aorta with normal saline followed by 10 per cent. formaldehyde. In 8 of the animals surviving to later stages perfusion was omitted for control purposes. After further hardening in the fixative the brain was divided into coronal slices about 2 mm. thick. Selected slices were embedded in paraffin wax and sections were stained with Ehrlich's haematoxylin and eosin, Weigert's iron haematoxylin and van Gieson

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Franc D. Ingraham, Orville T. Bailey and Frank E. Nulsen

the animals were sacrificed, the heads were removed. The skin, jaws and other excess tissue were then dissected away and the skull with its contents fixed in 10 per cent formalin. After fixation, the bone was removed without opening the dura. Gross observations were made and numerous blocks of dura and cerebral cortex were selected. The blocks were embedded in paraffin and sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. In the monkey sacrificed 3 days after operation, both fibrin foam and muscle were present. About the foam there were a few mononuclear cells and rare

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Paul Weiss

from the loose texture of the tissue and also from its greater shrinkage during fixation, which gives it a “waistline” appearance. In spite of the abundance of liquid channels, the mechanical firmness of the link is assured by the tensile strength of the longitudinal strands of endoneurial fibers serving as ties. 7 (6) No local edemas, neuromas or gliomas have formed. (7) Since the nerve fibers, in passing from the proximal to the distal stump, maintain a steady straight course, they will restore a more orderly pattern of connections between the

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Robert C. L. Robertson

important. Fixation of the tantalum replacement may be accomplished by wire suture passing through the edge of the plate and through the adjacent bone. In several instances, we used small triangular trimmings of the tantalum sheet, utilizing the principle of glazier's points. These points are driven into the diploic space about the margin of the defect in the same manner that a glazier immobilizes a glass window pane before applying putty about its border. We believe that, with rare exceptions, all replacements should be fixed and the “glazier point” method has

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Paul Weiss

could hardly be assumed to suffer from the rupturing of some neurilemmal tubes and the separation and extension of some Schwann cell columns. The ratio according to which a given amount of stretch will apportion itself between the two stumps will vary with the site of the lesion relative to the moving joint, the fixation of the stumps by adhesions, and the coefficients of extensibility, which will presumably differ for the two stumps. Thus again, each case presents a problem of its own. Moreover, aside from its effects on the nerve fibers, overstretch presents the

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R. A. Groat, W. F. Windle and H. W. Magoun

of the hydraulic apparatus was increased in diameter and the falling weight was made heavier. In this way, a force of sufficient magnitude to produce concussion in a monkey could be transmitted to its brain. During the concussion experiment, the state of respiration, corneal reflex, spontaneous motor activity and threshold of stimulus required to elicit appropriate responses of the motor cortex, hypothalamus or facial nucleus were followed and recorded. Adequate recovery intervals were allowed between blows in the same animal. Placement and fixation of electrodes

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Arthur J. Hemberger, Benjamin B. Whitcomb and Barnes Woodhall

plates were inserted in the skull defects without further fixation. They were preformed by methods to be described and altered to fit at the operating table or formed at the operating table from sheets of .015-inch tantalum plate. After the defect had been exposed, its edges were smoothed and a ledge, several millimeters wide and somewhat deeper than the thickness of the plate, was chiselled out of the outer table of the skull. The fitted tantalum plate was laid upon this ledge without further support. In the sixth case of this series, following the resection of a

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R. Glen Spurling, W. R. Lyons, B. B. Whitcomb and Barnes Woodhall

/8/42 2/7/44 456 p. tibial sciatic ½ 32 mm. O A 6/8/44 122 10 mm. 6. 4/5/43 1/7/44 277 p. tibial sciatic ½ 38 mm. O O 6/13/44 158 10 mm. 7. 4/9/43 12/9/43 244 p. tibial sciatic ½ 29 mm. A A 6/22/44 196 29 mm. * Measured after removal and fixation in 10 per cent formol. † The number of fibers at this point and for several millimeters proximally was in all cases too small to serve any useful purpose. Note: .003-inch tantalum wire sutures were used in all cases at both