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Intracranial Aneurysm in Late Pregnancy

Report of a Successful Operation Utilizing Hypothermia

Lycurgus M. Davey, Joseph A. Fiorito and Frederick W. Hehre

activities and its need for oxygen.” The survival rate of his animals (puppies) was the same after rewarming as during cooling. Vandewater and Paul 26 found that the oxygen saturation, CO 2 content and pH of fetal lambs paralleled maternal values, and that normal maternal oxygen saturation was equivalent to fetal saturation that exceeded normal. The fetus was not distressed unless the maternal organism suffered from respiratory acidosis. They concluded that, in sheep at least, moderate hypothermia was not an undue hazard to the fetus if maternal acidosis, hypoxia and

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Antonio V. Lorenzo, Keasley Welch and Scott Conner

. Reynolds, et al. , 42 have circumvented this problem by using the exteriorized fetal lamb which, at 58 to 85 days of gestation (term, 151 days), has a subependymal germinal matrix similar to that of the human infant. A combination of asphyxia and intermittent increases in arterial or venous pressure led to hemorrhages in the germinal matrix and ventricles. The experiments suggested that similar mechanisms may be involved in the production of intraventricular hemorrhage in the newborn infant. But in a recent clinical study, 14 in which blood pressure was continually

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Laura R. Ment, William B. Stewart and Charles C. Duncan

with controlled SAH. Like CBF, CMR appears to be lower in newborn animals than their adult counterparts, 4, 17 and, although Gardiner 8 could detect no overall alterations in the CMR of glucose in both fetal lambs and calves exposed to brief periods of hypoxia and prolonged asphyxial episodes, Kjellmer, et al. , 23 reported decreased CMRO 2 in fetal lambs with hypoxia, and Vannucci and Duffy, 42 studying high-energy phosphate compounds in the whole brain of neonatal beagle puppies, detected significant decreases in cerebral glucose, G6P and F6P, with

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1984 60 1 94 103 10.3171/jns.1984.60.1.0094 Success of microvascular decompression with and without prior surgical therapy for trigeminal neuralgia David Barba John F. Alksne January 1984 60 1 104 107 10.3171/jns.1984.60.1.0104 Experimental sensory ganglionectomy by way of suicide axoplasmic transport Teiji Yamamoto Yuzo Iwasaki Hidehiko Konno January 1984 60 1 108 114 10.3171/jns.1984.60.1.0108 Kaolin-induced congenital hydrocephalus in utero in fetal lambs and rhesus monkeys Michael S. B. Edwards Michael R

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Michael S. B. Edwards, Michael R. Harrison, Meredith Halks-Miller, Don K. Nakayama, Mitchell S. Berger, Philip L. Glick and Daryl H. Chinn

developed a model of congenital hydrocephalus in fetal lambs and rhesus monkeys using an intracisternal injection of kaolin. The eventual goal of this preliminary work is to study the pathophysiology of congenital hydrocephalus and to compare prenatal versus postnatal ventricular drainage. Materials and Methods To develop a model of congenital hydrocephalus in the fetus, we operated on pregnant ewes and rhesus monkeys using the anesthetic and operative techniques for temporary, partial exposure of the prenatal fetus that were previously described by Harrison, et al

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Leslie P. Weiner and John O. Fleming

, producing meningitis or encephalomyelitis. A number of viruses, however, do show specific cellular tropism: poliovirus involves motor neurons; rabies virus selects neurons in the limbic system; mumps and Reovirus infect the newborn infant's ependymal cells; the parvoviruses produce specific loss of granule cells in the cerebellum of newborn rodents and cats; and blue-tongue virus selects the subventricular cells of the forebrain of fetal lambs. In PML, infected oligodendrocytes are produced causing lysis and demyelination, whereas the astrocytes appear to be transformed

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James P. McAllister II, Todd A. Maugans, Mitseh V. Shah and Raymond C. Truex Jr.

MSB , Harrison MR , Halks-Miller M , et al : Kaolin-induced congenital hydrocephalus in utero in fetal lambs and rhesus monkeys. J Neurosurg 60 : 115 – 122 , 1984 Edwards MSB, Harrison MR, Halks-Miller M, et al: Kaolin-induced congenital hydrocephalus in utero in fetal lambs and rhesus monkeys. J Neurosurg 60: 115–122, 1984 10. Falls W , Gobel S : Golgi and EM studies of the formation of dendritic and axonal arbors: the interneurons of the substantia gelatinosa of Rolando in newborn kittens. J

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Laura R. Ment, William B. Stewart, Charles C. Duncan, Bruce R. Pitt and Judith Cole

cerebral blood flow: studies in the fetal lamb during hypoxia, hypercapnia, acidosis and hypotension. Pediatr Res 18 : 1309 – 1316 , 1984 Ashwal S, Dale PS, Longo LD: Regional cerebral blood flow: studies in the fetal lamb during hypoxia, hypercapnia, acidosis and hypotension. Pediatr Res 18: 1309–1316, 1984 3. Banker BQ , Larroche JC : Periventricular leukomalacia of infancy. A form of neonatal anoxic encephalopathy. Arch Neurol 7 : 386 – 410 , 1962 Banker BQ, Larroche JC: Periventricular leukomalacia of

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Marc R. Del Bigio and J. Edward Bruni

decentralization of the superior cervical sympathetic ganglia in rabbits. Eur Neurol 11: 296–303, 1974 11. Edwards MSB , Harrison MR , Halks-Miller M , et al : Kaolin-induced congenital hydrocephalus in utero in fetal lambs and rhesus monkeys. J Neurosurg 60 : 115 – 122 , 1984 Edwards MSB, Harrison MR, Halks-Miller M, et al: Kaolin-induced congenital hydrocephalus in utero in fetal lambs and rhesus monkeys. J Neurosurg 60: 115–122, 1984 12. Fleischhauer K : Ependyma and subependymal layer , in

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Lennart Persson and Lars Hillered

75 : 257 – 266 , 1969 Granholm L, Siesjö BK: The effects of hypercapnia and hypocapnia upon the cerebrospinal fluid lactate and pyruvate concentrations and upon the lactate, pyruvate, ATP, ADP, phosphocreatine and creatine concentrations of cat brain tissue. Acta Physiol Scand 75: 257–266, 1969 13. Hagberg H , Andersson P , Kjellmer I , et al : Extracellular overflow of glutamate, aspartate, GABA and taurine in the cortex and basal ganglia of fetal lambs during hypoxia-ischemia. Neurosci Lett 78 : 311 – 317