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Alexander P. Landry, Windsor K. C. Ting, Zsolt Zador, Alireza Sadeghian and Michael D. Cusimano

, before immediately reappearing 10° horizontally (with equal probability of being to the left or right of center). There was a fixed foreperiod of 1000 msec followed by a random foreperiod of ≤ 1000 msec. Once the light jumped, participants were instructed to look to the mirror opposite spot, relative to the original central target, as quickly and accurately as possible. For each saccade, the waiting time, defined as the maximum amount of time the saccadometer will wait for an eye movement response after the stimulus is presented, was 2000 msec. The trial break time

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Radek Kolecki, Vikalpa Dammavalam, Abdullah Bin Zahid, Molly Hubbard, Osamah Choudhry, Marleen Reyes, ByoungJun Han, Tom Wang, Paraskevi Vivian Papas, Aylin Adem, Emily North, David T. Gilbertson, Douglas Kondziolka, Jason H. Huang, Paul P. Huang and Uzma Samadani

leading to stretching of neural pathways, to compression of the tectum or shearing injuries of long tracts as they ascend and descend to their target nuclei. 11 , 15 , 28 Interestingly, when a patient’s hydrocephalus is treated, his or her ocular motility dysfunction often resolves. 5 Recently we described a novel technique to detect subclinical eye movement abnormalities while patients watch a short film clip 26 , 27 and have demonstrated that this methodology enables direct assessment of the physiological function of CN III and CN VI, which impact eye movement in

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Omar K. Bangash, Arosha S. Dissanayake, Shirley Knight, John Murray, Megan Thorburn, Nova Thani, Arul Bala, Rick Stell and Christopher R. P. Lind

node within saccadic circuitry with a major role in target selection, initiation, and velocity. 12 Neurons comprising the pathway between the ZI and SC (incerto-collicular pathway) are immunoreactive to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). 9 Electrodes confirmed postmortem as implanted in the ZI of primates trained to perform eye movements demonstrated a distinct pause in tonic activity immediately preceding a saccade with resumption after completion. 22 The ZI may also contribute to eye movement control via an indirect SC relation with glutamatergic efferent projections

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Tatsuya Sasaki, Kyouichi Suzuki, Masato Matsumoto, Taku Sato, Namio Kodama and Keiko Yago

electrodes into the orbit. Fukaya, et al., 3 reported that potentials recorded from surface electrodes can be represented with the aid of EOG, that is, they are potentials elicited by spontaneous or voluntary eye movement. Marg 6 developed a noninvasive EOG recording method that makes use of surface electrodes placed around the eyeball. To obtain electrooculograms, eye movement—induced changes in potentials around the eyeball are recorded using the standing electrical potential difference between the cornea and retina. 2 The standing potential of the eyeball originates

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Concezio Di Rocco, David G. McLone, Takeyoshi Shimoji and Anthony J. Raimondi

S pontaneous episodic increases in intracranial pressure (ICP) have been the subject of extensive studies; they have been found in patients with increased ICP secondary to expanding intracranial lesions 19 and to head injury. 9 In head-injured patients such increases have been correlated with the rapid eye movement (REM) phases of sleep. 9 More recently, spontaneous episodic increases in ICP were detected in patients with normotensive hydrocephalus; 7, 33 these increases have also been correlated with REM sleep. 20 These phenomena are interpreted

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Dominique Renier, Christian Sainte-Rose, Daniel Marchac and Jean-François Hirsch

slow-wave (SW) sleep, and the waves of increased ICP recorded during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. In most cases of craniosynostosis, when the SW sleep ICP is elevated, a sustained wave of increased ICP is recorded during each period of REM sleep. Sometimes, a plateau wave with a sudden onset and an abrupt ending is recorded ( Fig. 2 lower ). In other cases, the wave has a fast onset, immediately followed by a slow return of ICP to the baseline ( Fig. 2 center ). In these two types, phasic variations of ICP are superimposed on the sustained wave. A third type

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Uzma Samadani, Sameer Farooq, Robert Ritlop, Floyd Warren, Marleen Reyes, Elizabeth Lamm, Anastasia Alex, Elena Nehrbass, Radek Kolecki, Michael Jureller, Julia Schneider, Agnes Chen, Chen Shi, Neil Mendhiratta, Jason H. Huang, Meng Qian, Roy Kwak, Artem Mikheev, Henry Rusinek, Ajax George, Robert Fergus, Douglas Kondziolka, Paul P. Huang and R. Theodore Smith

hypothesized that our eye-tracking algorithm would detect clinical and subclinical palsies of the abducent and oculomotor nerves. To test this hypothesis we tracked eye movements in 157 normal control subjects to establish a range for normal eye movement ratios with our algorithm. We then compared the ratio of vertical versus horizontal eye movement for normal subjects to subjects with known pathological conditions of these nerves who were recruited from the ophthalmology and neurosurgery clinics. Patients with supratentorial lesions resulting in uncal mass effect who are

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Chao Lin, Yan Dong, Liquan Lv, Mingkun Yu and Lijun Hou

patients were recruited between May 2002 and February 2010 in Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University. All participants underwent a complete examination that included high-resolution CT scanning, eye movement, pupillary light reflex, pupil size, and so on. Diagnosis of isolated oculomotor nerve palsy after mild head injury was made based on clinical presentation, medical history, physical examination, and radiological findings on the head and facial CT scans. Demographic data including age and sex, the mechanism of injury, initial oculomotor nerve status

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Madjid Samii, Steffen K. Rosahl, Gustavo A. Carvalho and Thomas Krzizok

– 434 , 1973 Susac JO, Smith JL, Schatz NJ: Superior oblique myokymia. Arch Neurol 29: 432–434, 1973 52. Thurston SE , Saul RF : Superior oblique myokymia: quantitative description of the eye movement. Neurology 41 : 1679 – 1681 , 1991 Thurston SE, Saul RF: Superior oblique myokymia: quantitative description of the eye movement. Neurology 41: 1679–1681, 1991 53. Troost BT : Nystagmus: a clinical review. Rev Neurol 145 : 417 – 428 , 1989 Troost BT: Nystagmus: a clinical review. Rev

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Christian Sainte-Rose, Michael D. Hooven and Jean-François Hirsch

through the natural channels and that has to be evacuated through the shunt is roughly constant at physiological ICP's. Since the DP varies under circumstances such as when the patient is standing erect, or during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep or exertion, 11, 18, 41, 54, 56, 75, 86, 103 the resistance of the shunt should vary in order to maintain a constant flow. These considerations led us to design a variable-resistance shunt to comply with the following requirements. Fig. 1. Relationship between flow and pressure in shunts in the supine position (A) and