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David G. Kline and George J. Hayes

only changes observed in 4 cortical specimens. Although the arachnoid was invariably interrupted upon exposure of the cortex, the 910 adhesive polymerized rapidly so that the implant may not have had intimate contact with the cortex in every case. Since neural tissue is damaged easily by most toxic substances, it provides a sensitive experimental model for testing implanted materials. The gross and histologic changes in this study could be evaluated readily and consisted of inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis. This suggests that a good deal of care should be

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Frank D. Mann and Dario D. Travaini

S ince postoperative cerebral edema remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neurosurgery there is need for an experimental model that closely resembles this clinical condition. Prados et al. 4 exposed the cerebral cortex of cats to air; edema of moderate degree, permitting closure of the dura mater, usually followed but rarely and unpredictably there was marked swelling. Luse and Harris 1 reported swelling of the brain following craniotomy in the rabbit; they stated that this technique was not a suitable method for the consistent production

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James I. Ausman and Guy Owens

phylogenetic relationship to man, this tumor provides an excellent model for the study of neurological problems particularly those associated with intracerebral neoplasms. Summary 1. A tumor induced by Yaba virus was transplanted successfully to the brain of the monkey, providing an experimental model for the study of problems associated with cerebral neoplasms in an animal phylogenetically close to man. 2. Subarachnoid and intracerebral injections of the Yaba virus did not produce evidence of neoplasms of the central nervous system. 3. Yaba

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Ronald R. Tasker and Andrew Kertesz

, Tremorine, which produces a specific type of tremor in animals. There is a constant need to search for experimental models in medicine which have some degree of control not present in clinical situations. Dr. Tasker and his associates have developed such an experimental model in the rat. The tremor produced by Tremorine has been used to screen drugs which could be useful in the treatment of extrapyramidal diseases in man. There is evidence that this experimental tremor is not related to the types seen in man and its usefulness as a screening method for antiparkinsonian

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M. Stephen Mahaley Jr. and Eugene D. Day

the tumor with minimal radiation damage to the adjacent normal brain tissue. 1 These considerations led to an investigation of the antigenic potential of human gliomas, based upon an experimental model system with rat hepatoma. 8 Thus, the in vitro and clinical studies outlined in this paper and the related studies described elsewhere 3, 4, 5, 9 were designed first, to determine the feasibility of localizing radioantibody in human gliomas and, second, to establish a baseline for assays of localized antibody from which to determine the purity, concentration and

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Report of Head Injury Conference

University of Chicago, February 6–9, 1966

Joseph P. Evans

gaps in our clinical knowledge of metabolic and neuroendocrine disturbances associated with head injury. The possibility of more detailed cerebrospinal fluid analysis with special attention to pH, lactic acid, acetyl choline and seratonin was considered and it was recognized that other as yet undetermined constituents might require study. Attention was devoted to the production of further experimental models. They should be designed to produce a better understanding of intracranial pressure alterations and the related structural damage at both the light and

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John F. Alksne, Aaron G. Fingerhut and Robert W. Rand

dislodge a thrombus in a naturally-occurring aneurysm may be different from those which exist in our experimental model. Therefore, we considered it important to determine the period of magnet contact necessary to insure a stable thrombus under the most adverse conditions. Fig. 5. A. Photomicrograph of the partially occluding thrombus see in Fig. 4 . and removed 7 days after formation. A complete endothelial covering is present over the mural thrombus which occludes about 30% of the potential vessel lumen. Well advanced organization is present at the margins. ×23

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Thoralf M. Sundt Jr., Arthur G. Waltz and George P. Sayre

R ecent attempts to treat peripheral vascular obstruction by using agents designed to alter the rheologic characteristics of the blood 14 have met with some success in humans and in experimental models in animals. 1, 4 Such agents, including low-molecular-weight dextran (dextran-40, Rheomacrodex), also have been used as plasma expanders 6 and during cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation. 8 The apparent success of these agents in favorably influencing the clinical response to peripheral vascular obstruction has suggested that they might be used in

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L. M. Thomas, V. L. Roberts and E. S. Gurdjian

a three-dimensional model of the skull. Pressure gradients have been postulated and demonstrated on the basis of fluid mechanics. 6 The shape of the gradients and the location of the nodal point have not been demonstrated experimentally. The experimental data presented here demonstrate the existence of a pressure gradient across the fluidfilled human skull as measured along three orthogonal axes. Method The experimental model consisted of a human skull from which the soft tissue and brain had been removed. In one model, the falx and tentorium had been

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Edgar A. Bering Jr., Charles B. Wilson and Horace A. Norrell Jr.

within the tumor. Animal Tumors as Experimental Models Dr. Harry Zimmerman introduced the subject of animal tumors as experimental models for testing therapy. He described the mouse brain tumor which he originated in 1948. Methyl cholanthrene, a carcinogenic hydrocarbon, produces an intracerebral tumor in 50% of mice 200 to 300 days following introduction into the brain. Although many if not all of these tumors are mixed tumors, the site of implantation determines the predominant tumor cell type, for example, medulloblastomas in the cerebellum, ependymomas near