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Henry H. Schmidek

transform 3T3 cells, a change that has been demonstrated to be associated with the recently discovered neu oncogene. 85 Activation of the neu oncogene causes changes in the structure of its gene product, a growth factor receptor. Although not found among 60 human glioblastomas examined, this oncogene is related to the erb B oncogene, whose over-representation, manifested by amplified epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene activity, has been demonstrated in a number of human brain tumors. In a recent report, four of 10 freshly resected human gliomas were shown

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James T. Rutka, Jackson Hall, Jane R. Giblin, Dolores V. Dougherty, Michael S. B. Edwards, Robert Stern and Mark L. Rosenblum

al : Establishment and characterization of a cell line from a human gliosarcoma. Cancer Res 46 : 5893 – 5902 , 1986 Rutka JT, Giblin JR, Høifødt HK, et al: Establishment and characterization of a cell line from a human gliosarcoma. Cancer Res 46: 5893–5902, 1986 28. Todaro GJ , Fryling C , De Larco JE : Transforming growth factors produced by certain human tumor cells: polypeptides that interact with epidermal growth factor receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77 : 5258 – 5262 , 1980 Todaro GJ

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Howard P. Charman, Daniel H. Lowenstein, Kyung G. Cho, Stephen J. DeArmond and Charles B. Wilson

beginning of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome epidemic. Although non-CNS Kaposi sarcomas are relatively frequent, only a few cases of cerebral involvement with Kaposi's sarcoma have been reported. 4, 14, 25 Recent studies have begun to elucidate the molecular basis of angiosarcomas. Kornbluth, et al. , 17 produced angiosarcomas in chickens by replacing the src gene of avian sarcoma virus, a gene with homology to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), with the gene coding for polyoma virus middle T antigen. Gamett, et al. , 13 have recently studied

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Hiroshi Kanno, Takeo Kuwabara, Hidetaro Yasumitsu and Makoto Umeda

murine and feline sarcoma viruses specifically blocks binding of epidermal growth factor to cells. Nature 264 : 26 – 31 , 1976 Todaro GJ, De Larco JE, Cohen S: Transformation by murine and feline sarcoma viruses specifically blocks binding of epidermal growth factor to cells. Nature 264: 26–31, 1976 25. Todaro GJ , Fryling C , De Larco JE : Transforming growth factors produced by certain human tumor cells: polypeptides that interact with epidermal growth factor receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77 : 5258

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W. Craig Clark and Joseph Bressler

: Biphasic effects of type β transforming growth factor on epidermal growth factor receptors in NRK fibroblasts. Functional consequences for epidermal growth factor-stimulated mitosis. J Biol Chem 260 : 9613 – 9617 , 1985 Assoian RK: Biphasic effects of type β transforming growth factor on epidermal growth factor receptors in NRK fibroblasts. Functional consequences for epidermal growth factor-stimulated mitosis. J Biol Chem 260: 9613–9617, 1985 3. Assoian RK , Komoriya A , Meyers CA , et al : Transforming growth

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James T. Rutka, Gerard Apodaca, Robert Stern and Mark Rosenblum

107. Todaro GJ , Fryling C , De Larco JE : Transforming growth factors produced by certain human tumor cells: polypeptides that interact with epidermal growth factor receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77 : 5258 – 5262 , 1980 Todaro GJ, Fryling C, De Larco JE: Transforming growth factors produced by certain human tumor cells: polypeptides that interact with epidermal growth factor receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77: 5258–5262, 1980 108. Toole BP : Morphogenetic role of glycosaminoglycans (acid

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Carl D. Lordo, Eric C. Stroude and Rolando F. Del Maestro

of glutamine synthetase activity in sensitive C6 and resistant C6H glial cells. J Neurosci Res 6: 75–88, 1981 17. Huang KS , Wallner BP , Mattaliano RJ , et al : Two human 35kd inhibitors of phospholipase A 2 are related to substrates of pp60 v-src and of the epidermal growth factor receptor/kinase. Cell 46 : 191 – 199 , 1986 Huang KS, Wallner BP, Mattaliano RJ, et al: Two human 35kd inhibitors of phospholipase A 2 are related to substrates of pp60 v-src and of the epidermal growth factor receptor

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Norio Arita, Toru Hayakawa, Shuuichi Izumoto, Takuyu Taki, Takanori Ohnishi, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Shoji Bitoh and Heitaro Mogami

weak + + − 11 67, F rt frontal glioblastoma ++ + − − * Code: ++ = more than 50% of tumor cells are positively stained; + = positive cells are seen scattered in the tissue; weak = few cells are positively stained; − = negative. † Tumor recurrence. Fig. 1. Case 10. Photomicrographs of a glioblastoma section prepared with immunoperoxidase staining with monoclonal anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody. Left: The tumor cells at the left are infiltrating into the normal brain at the right, and are

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dura mater in children Jan Pařízek Pavel Měřička Josef Špaček Stanislav Němeček Pavel Eliáš Miroslav Šercl June 1989 70 6 905 909 10.3171/jns.1989.70.6.0905 Proto-oncogene analyses in brain tumors Masahito Fujimoto Peter J. Sheridan Z. Dave Sharp Frank J. Weaker Kathleen S. Kagan-Hallet Jim L. Story June 1989 70 6 910 915 10.3171/jns.1989.70.6.0910 Epidermal growth factor receptor in human glioma Norio Arita Toru Hayakawa Shuuichi Izumoto Takuyu Taki Takanori

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Hoi Sang U, Patricia Y. Kelley, James D. Hatton and Jin Y. Shew

characterizations thus provide the framework for investigations involving oncogenes and growth factors, which are central to the transformation process. Cell transformation is a multi-step process involving the activation of proto-oncogenes. 7–9, 11, 12, 22, 23, 35, 39, 41 Among these genes, the epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGF-R) gene is amplified in a great number of human glioblastomas and remains the only proto-oncogene consistently overexpressed in glioblastomas. 14, 27, 28, 36 Thus the EGF-R gene appears to be linked to glial transformation. Enhanced EGF-R gene