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Elin Tønne, Bernt J. Due-Tønnessen, Ulrikke Wiig, Barbro F. Stadheim, Torstein R. Meling, Eirik Helseth, and Ketil R. Heimdal

, 11 , 15 , 16 of all cases. The sagittal suture is the most commonly affected suture, the proportion varying between 41% and 68%. 10 , 17–19 The male/female ratio ranges from 1.8:1 to 4.7:1, 13 , 15 , 20–22 and the proportion of familial craniosynostosis is reported to be between 5.6% and 14.7%. 14 , 22 , 23 The epidemiology of craniosynostosis in the literature varies significantly between countries, regions, and medical centers. To our knowledge, the epidemiology of craniosynostosis has not previously been reported from any Scandinavian country. The objective

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Shyamal C. Bir, Devi Prasad Patra, Tanmoy K. Maiti, Hai Sun, Bharat Guthikonda, Christina Notarianni, and Anil Nanda

-3680(18)30032-9 8 Dubrow R , Darefsky AS : Demographic variation in incidence of adult glioma by subtype, United States, 1992–2007 . BMC Cancer 11 : 325 , 2011 10.1186/1471-2407-11-325 9 Elder JB , Chen TC : Surgical interventions for primary central nervous system lymphoma . Neurosurg Focus 21 : 5 E13 , 2006 10 Fisher JL , Schwartzbaum JA , Wrensch M , Wiemels JL : Epidemiology of brain tumors . Neurol Clin 25 : 867 – 890 , 2007 10.1016/j.ncl.2007.07.002 11 Ghods AJ , Munoz L , Byrne R : Surgical treatment of cerebellar

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Nishit Mummareddy, Michael C. Dewan, Michael R. Mercier, Robert P. Naftel, John C. Wellons III, and Christopher M. Bonfield

-to-date systematic review examining the most important clinical questions surrounding MMC patients suffering from scoliosis. We have sought to address the epidemiology and management outcomes in these patients in a concise and straightforward report. From our literature search and analysis, several significant patterns were identified and we elaborate on them below. More female MMC patients had scoliosis than male MMC patients. 1 , 43 Whether this increased female predilection is due to an underlying pathophysiological process or whether it is simply due to higher rates of

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Joseph Piatt and Nicholas Imperato

series and registries. 3 , 4 , 17 , 20 , 21 , 24 , 27 , 31 Injuries are far more frequent among adolescents than among younger children, so in the aggregate the epidemiology of spinal injury in the pediatric age range is dominated by the mechanisms and anatomical patterns of the older years. In the aggregate, motor vehicles crashes account for the largest fraction of injuries, followed by falls, but the importance of falls in the youngest years is well established. Some mechanisms of injury are more malignant than others, in the sense that they are more likely to

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Joseph H. Piatt Jr.

black patients and among patients with Medicaid or no insurance. Patients in these categories had startling rates of firearm-related injury, 23.9% and 10.3%, respectively. Black patients also had the highest rates of SCI. Like other traumatic conditions, the epidemiology of pediatric spinal injury in the US cannot be understood apart from considerations of race and economic status. Having demonstrated that patients of different racial and economic categories sustain qualitatively and quantitatively different injuries, a second goal of this investigation was to

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Christian Stapf, Jay P. Mohr, John Pile-Spellman, Robert A. Solomon, Ralph L. Sacco, and E. Sander Connolly Jr.

The epidemiology and natural history of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) remains incompletely elucidated. Several factors are responsible. With regard to the incidence and prevalence of AVMs, the results of prior studies have suffered because of the retrospective design, the use of nonspecific ICD-9 codes, and a focus on small genetically isolated populations. Recent data from the New York Islands AVM Hemorrhage Study, an ongoing, prospective, population-based survey determining the incidence of AVM-related hemorrhage and the associated rates of morbidity and mortality in a zip code–defined population of 10 million people, suggests that the AVM detection rate is 1.21/100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02–1.42) and the incidence of AVM-hemorrhage is 0.42/100,000 person-years (95% CI 0.32–0.55). Contemporaneous data from the Northern Manhattan Stroke Study, a prospective, longitudinal population-based study of nearly 150,000 patients in which the focus is to define the incidence of stroke, suggest the crude incidence for first-ever AVM-related hemorrhage to be 0.55/100,000 person-years (95% CI 0.11–1.61). Efforts are ongoing to study the natural history of both ruptured and unruptured AVMs in these datasets to examine the relevance of prior studies of patients selected for conservative follow up in Finland. In addition, data are being gathered to determine whether risk factors for future hemorrhage, which have previously been established in small case series, are valid when applied to whole populations. Together, these data should help inform therapeutic decisionmaking.

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Hiroyuki Toi, Keita Kinoshita, Satoshi Hirai, Hiroki Takai, Keijiro Hara, Nobuhisa Matsushita, Shunji Matsubara, Makoto Otani, Keiji Muramatsu, Shinya Matsuda, Kiyohide Fushimi, and Masaaki Uno

more rapidly than anywhere else in the world. The objectives of this study were to elucidate the current epidemiology and changing trends for CSDH in Japan. We analyzed patient information derived from a Japanese administrative database associated with the diagnosis procedure combination (DPC) system. Methods DPC System The DPC system is the national administrative database of a case-mix classification system developed in Japan for acute inpatient care and payment. 11 The DPC system was introduced in 2003 and has been widely adopted in Japan, and the number of

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Margaret Wrensch, James L. Fisher, Judith A. Schwartzbaum, Melissa Bondy, Mitchel Berger, and Kenneth D. Aldape

In this paper the authors highlight recent findings from molecular epidemiology studies of glioma origin and prognosis and suggest promising paths for future research. The reasons for variation in glioma incidence according to time period of diagnosis, sex, age, ancestry and ethnicity, and geography are poorly understood, as are factors that affect prognosis. High-dose therapeutic ionizing irradiation and rare mutations in highly penetrant genes associated with certain rare syndromes—the only two established causes of glioma—can be called upon to explain few cases. Both familial aggregation of gliomas and the inverse association of allergies and immune-related conditions with gliomas have been shown consistently, but the explanations for these associations are inadequately developed or unknown. Several bio-markers do predict prognosis, but only evaluation of loss of 1p and 19q in oligodendroglial tumors are incorporated in clinical practice. Ongoing research focuses on classifying homogeneous groups of tumors on the basis of molecular markers and identifying inherited polymorphisms that may influence survival or risk. Because most cases of glioma have yet to furnish either an environmental or a genetic explanation, the greatest potential for discovery may lie in genomic studies in conjunction with continued evaluation of environmental and developmental factors. Large sample sizes and multidisciplinary teams with expertise in neuropathology, genetics, epidemiology, functional genomics, bioinformatics, biostatistics, immunology, and neurooncology are required for these studies to permit exploration of potentially relevant pathways and modifying effects of other genes or exposures, and to avoid false-positive findings. Improving survival rates for patients harboring astrocytic tumors will probably require many randomized clinical trials of novel treatment strategies.

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Adam M. Sonabend, Brad E. Zacharia, Hannah Goldstein, Samuel S. Bruce, Dawn Hershman, Alfred I. Neugut, and Jeffrey N. Bruce

are based on single-center experiences. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database of the National Cancer Institute to analyze the incidence, treatment, and survival of patients with CNS hemangiopericytomas. Methods Patient Identification We identified patients with a diagnosis of hemangiopericytoma registered in the SEER Program of the National Cancer Institute. The SEER database is a population-based tumor registry containing data covering approximately 26% of the US population. Information concerning primary tumor type

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Tackeun Kim, O-Ki Kwon, Jae Seung Bang, Heeyoung Lee, Jeong Eun Kim, Hyun-Seung Kang, Won-Sang Cho, and Chang Wan Oh

, it would be valuable to investigate the epidemiology of RBAVM using Korea as a representative Asian country. Considering the rare incidence rates reported in previous articles, estimating the national epidemiological features of this disease requires a large sample size. Therefore, this study was designed as a retrospective cohort study using the National Health Insurance Service–National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC), which contains detailed information relating to medical utilization by approximately 1 million subjects during a period of 12 years. The aim of this