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Nasser M. F. El-Ghandour

subjects that should be well known. Obviously, the practice of neurosurgery in modern Egypt has shown rapid progression in the last 50 years. It is a successful model that can be replicated, adapted, and adopted in low- and middle-income countries. This article will briefly present the training programs available in Egypt, the current situation of this specialty in the African continent, the challenges African neurosurgeons are facing, and the requirements needed to enhance neurosurgical education in Africa and build up the required neurosurgical capacity in the Sub

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Tyler Lazaro, Visish M. Srinivasan, Maryam Rahman, Ashok Asthagiri, Garni Barkhoudarian, Lola B. Chambless, Peter Kan, Ganesh Rao, Brian V. Nahed, and Akash J. Patel

T he novel coronavirus of 2019 (COVID-19) has fundamentally changed the way neurosurgery is practiced across the US. As COVID-19 cases surged in the spring of 2020, elective cases across the country decreased by more than 50% at many institutions. 1 Social distancing and restrictions on gathering have affected neurosurgical training. In addition to the impact on trainee case volumes, didactic education has also changed significantly. Since the start of the pandemic, neurosurgical education has been overhauled and many academic neurosurgical programs have turned

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Zoe E. Teton, Rachel S. Freedman, Samuel B. Tomlinson, Joseph R. Linzey, Alvin Onyewuenyi, Anadjeet S. Khahera, Benjamin K. Hendricks, and Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol

collections of operative videos, webinars, interactive atlases, and 3D models, now play a central role in the modern era of neurosurgical education for learners all across the globe. 25 Since its internet launch in 2016, The Neurosurgical Atlas by Aaron Cohen-Gadol, MD, has established itself as a leading international resource for neurosurgical education and particularly for microneurosurgical techniques. 24 The site currently features more than 480 text chapters (“volumes”), 9000 illustrations, 1100 educational videos, and 150 “grand-round” webinars presented by

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Paul Sean Echlin, Andrew M. Johnson, Suzanne Riverin, Charles H. Tator, Robert C. Cantu, Michael D. Cusimano, Jack E. Taunton, Ross E. G. Upshur, Craig R. Hall, Lorie A. Forwell, and Elaine N. Skopelja

18.2 ± 1.2 years, range 16–21 years) from 2 teams. Concussion Knowledge and Education Component At the beginning of the season all participating players were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 concussion education intervention groups: the Thinkfirst 1 concussion DVD (Concussion Clinic for Hockey Coaches; 16 players); the ICM group (20 players); or a control group that did not receive any educational intervention (22 players). Although a total of 67 players participated in the study, only 58 players participated in the baseline testing session. Due to individual and

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Matthew A. Kirkman, Maria Ahmed, Angelique F. Albert, Mark H. Wilson, Dipankar Nandi, and Nick Sevdalis

the effect of resident duty-hour restrictions as stipulated by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) is an increase in adverse patient outcomes. 17 As such, working-hour restrictions necessitate the delivery of high-quality, time-effective training to surgeons to ensure optimal patient outcomes. Simulation has been postulated as a potential solution to the challenge of providing appropriate training in less time 21 , 50 and represents a useful proxy measure for expert surgical performance. Simulation as a concept is diverse and can

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Philipp R. Aldana and Paul Steinbok

P ediatricians play a vital role in the diagnosis, initial workup, and long-term treatment of children with neurosurgical diseases. Despite this, the opportunities to learn about the medical treatment of a pediatric neurosurgical patient during pediatrics residency training are limited and variable. There are no provisions for formal neurosurgical education, such as neurosurgical clinical rotations or teaching sessions, in the pediatrics residency training curriculum. 1 Outside of residency training, other avenues for neurosurgical education for the

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Galal A. Elsayed, Esther B. Dupépé, Matthew S. Erwood, Matthew C. Davis, Samuel G. McClugage III, Paul Szerlip, Beverly C. Walters, and Mark N. Hadley

P atient-reported outcomes are commonly used to evaluate the benefit offered by medical or surgical treatments. 4 , 5 , 22 In this way, they help define preoperative strategy, shape patient expectations, and guide quality improvement for surgeons, third-party payers, and policymakers. 1 , 5 , 16 Although numerous factors may have a role in patient-reported outcomes, one potential characteristic of interest is patient education level. Several authors have reported that patients with less education (i.e., high school education or less) experience increased pain

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Paul S. Echlin, Andrew M. Johnson, Jeffrey D. Holmes, Annalise Tichenoff, Sarah Gray, Heather Gatavackas, Joanne Walsh, Tim Middlebro, Angelique Blignaut, Martin MacIntyre, Chris Anderson, Eli Fredman, Michael Mayinger, Elaine N. Skopelja, Takeshi Sasaki, Sylvain Bouix, Ofer Pasternak, Karl G. Helmer, Inga K. Koerte, Martha E. Shenton, and Lorie A. Forwell

, in fact, indicates that concussion education increases the likelihood that secondary school athletes will notify their coach of concussion symptoms. 9 The foregoing illustrates that concussion education (on prevention, accurate recognition, and appropriate treatment) is an essential component of concussion management. Public education is a significant conduit for informing the next generation of athletes, coaches, and parents concerning this serious problem, and concussion education has had moderate success in increasing knowledge and awareness. 33 The current

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Joao Paulo Almeida, Carlos Velásquez, Claire Karekezi, Miguel Marigil, Mojgan Hodaie, James T. Rutka, and Mark Bernstein

). Multiple neurosurgical collaborations have been developed between HIC and LMIC institutions in the last 15 years. 4 , 5 , 9 , 17 , 20 , 22 , 24 , 25 , 30–32 , 34 , 36 Although the establishment of initiatives such as the Foundation for International Education in Neurological Surgery (FIENS) 3 and the Neurosurgery, Education and Development (NED) Foundation have supported this cause, most projects are still being organized by individual or single-center initiatives, and face financial, organizational, and academic challenges. TABLE 1. Highlights of global surgery

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Nathan R. Selden

most surgical education. In the last 20 years, however, the world has changed radically, threatening these personal ties between mentor and trainee. Subspecialty expertise has exploded. Technology is evolving at a breathtaking pace. Hospitals, health care systems, and insurers have created a relative value unit treadmill that demands ever-increasing efficiency, prolonged work hours, and almost inhuman focus on productivity. At the same time, the government has created a sea of regulations and electronic checkboxes that distract from our patients, take us away from