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Joachim Oertel, Stefan Linsler, Akos Csokonay, Henry W. S. Schroeder and Sebastian Senger

authors only count those bleeding events as complications that lead to a discontinuation of the surgery or a switch to microsurgery. 6 Despite this lack of a consensus regarding the definition of hemorrhage complication, a severe intraoperative hemorrhage bears a life-threatening risk. Therefore, the authors wanted to share their experience with management of intraoperative bleeding in severe cases during fully endoscopic surgery. The so-called “dry field technique” (DFT) was first described during the resection of a colloid cyst and two intraventricular tumors. 16 , 17

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Michael R. Gaab and Henry W. S. Schroeder

concert with continuous irrigation with lactated Ringer's solution at 37°C to maintain a clear view. 58 To prevent dangerous increases in ICP, care was taken to maintain a sufficient outflow of irrigating fluid. Minor bleeding usually ceased after a few minutes of irrigation. Larger vessels that had been in danger were coagulated with the bipolar coagulation probe. The Nd:YAG laser was used to remove three tumors (Cases 5, 11, and 17). In two patients (Cases 16 and 24), it was necessary to aspirate the CSF and to continue surgery in a dry field. With this dry field