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Sabastian Hajtovic, Melissa A. LoPresti, Lu Zhang, Kalman A. Katlowitz, Dominic J. Kizek, and Sandi Lam

Supplemental material is available with the online version of the article. Supplemental Data. https://thejns.org/doi/suppl/10.3171/2022.1.PEDS222 . References 1 Kwan P , Arzimanoglou A , Berg AT , Definition of drug resistant epilepsy: consensus proposal by the ad hoc Task Force of the ILAE Commission on Therapeutic Strategies . Epilepsia . 2010 ; 51 ( 6 ): 1069 – 1077 . 10.1111/j.1528-1167.2009.02397.x 2 Kalilani L , Sun X , Pelgrims B , Noack-Rink M , Villanueva V . The epidemiology of drug-resistant epilepsy: a systematic

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Jonathan Pindrik, Nguyen Hoang, Luke Smith, Mark Halverson, Mary Wojnaroski, Kelly McNally, Satyanarayana Gedela, and Adam P. Ostendorf

, Kung J , Scott RC , Nicolaides P , Neville B , Aylett SE , : Epilepsy surgery in children under 3 years . Epilepsy Res 93 : 96 – 106 , 2011 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2010.11.002 21156345 23 Dwivedi R , Ramanujam B , Chandra PS , Sapra S , Gulati S , Kalaivani M , : Surgery for drug-resistant epilepsy in children . N Engl J Med 377 : 1639 – 1647 , 2017 10.1056/NEJMoa1615335 29069568 24 Engel J Jr : Surgery for seizures . N Engl J Med 334 : 647 – 652 , 1996 8592530 10.1056/NEJM199603073341008 25 Englot DJ , Breshears

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Nguyen Duc Lien, Dang Anh Tuan, Cao Vu Hung, Jacob R. Lepard, and Brandon G. Rocque

M edically refractory epilepsy (MRE) is an epidemiologically significant disease with a global burden and high economic cost to both patients and caregivers. 4 , 15 Resective surgery is a well-established procedure for treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy, particularly in the presence of a focal epileptogenic lesion. However, in cases of nonlesional epilepsy or cases in which there are multiple lesions scattered across both hemispheres, the surgical approach requires significant preinvestigation and often invasive monitoring. In limited-resource settings in

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Mehdi Khan, Jaber Paktiawal, Rory J. Piper, Aswin Chari, and Martin M. Tisdall

S eizure control is achieved with antiepileptic drugs in approximately two-thirds of patients with epilepsy. 1 , 2 Drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) and poorly controlled seizures can have devastating consequences on patient quality of life, as well as lead to increased risks of mortality and morbidity. Particularly in children, poorly controlled epilepsy is often associated with significant cognitive, psychological, and developmental impairments. 3 For well-selected children with drug-resistant focal epilepsy, tailored resection such as disconnection or

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Mehdi Khan, Jaber Paktiawal, Rory J. Piper, Aswin Chari, and Martin M. Tisdall

S eizure control is achieved with antiepileptic drugs in approximately two-thirds of patients with epilepsy. 1 , 2 Drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) and poorly controlled seizures can have devastating consequences on patient quality of life, as well as lead to increased risks of mortality and morbidity. Particularly in children, poorly controlled epilepsy is often associated with significant cognitive, psychological, and developmental impairments. 3 For well-selected children with drug-resistant focal epilepsy, tailored resection such as disconnection or

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Neil Klinger and Sandeep Mittal

E pilepsy has an estimated lifetime prevalence of 7.6 cases per 1000 persons and an incidence of 68 cases per 100,000 individuals internationally. 19 In the 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study, epilepsy was found to have a worldwide burden second only to migraine headaches among neurological disorders. 48 The International League Against Epilepsy defines drug-resistant epilepsy as a failure to achieve sustained seizure freedom after two appropriately chosen, tolerated, and scheduled antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), whether they are given as monotherapy or in

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Jennifer Hong, Atman Desai, Vijay M. Thadani, and David W. Roberts

V agal nerve stimulation (VNS) and corpus callosotomy (CC) are palliative surgical procedures that can reduce seizure frequency, attenuate seizure severity, and improve quality of life for patients with nonlocalizing or unresectable drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). This is in contrast to focal resection, where the goal is complete control of seizures. Patient selection criteria for VNS and for CC are not strictly defined. In general, VNS is recommended for patients with nonlocalizable or unresectable seizure disorders or those who either are unable to tolerate or

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Gopal K. Dash, Chaturbhuj Rathore, Malcolm K. Jeyaraj, Pandurang Wattamwar, Sankara P. Sarma, and Kurupath Radhakrishnan

F ocal gliosis or encephalomalacia has long been recognized as a cause of drug-resistant epilepsy. 13 , 22 Focal gliosis can result from perinatal strokes, perinatal hypoxia and hypoglycemia, meningoencephalitis, head trauma, and previous surgical procedures. It is one of the most common substrates for drug-resistant extratemporal lobe epilepsy in developing countries. 8 , 9 In a series of 71 patients from India who underwent focal extratemporal resections for drug-resistant epilepsy, the most common etiologies were focal gliosis in 27 (38%) patients and focal

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Jimmy C. Yang, Katie L. Bullinger, Faical Isbaine, Abdulrahman Alwaki, Enrico Opri, Jon T. Willie, and Robert E. Gross

F or patients with drug-resistant epilepsy who are not candidates for destructive surgery, neuromodulation is a promising nonablative technique to reduce seizure frequency. Recent randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have demonstrated the efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and responsive neurostimulation (RNS) for the treatment of focal-onset epilepsy. Long-term results from the Stimulation of the Anterior Nucleus of the Thalamus for Epilepsy (SANTÉ) trial documented an overall median seizure frequency reduction of 75% from baseline at 7 years, with a

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Alvin Y. Chan, John D. Rolston, Brian Lee, Sumeet Vadera, and Dario J. Englot

understood, and it is not known if factors associated with seizure freedom after corpus callosotomy differ from those in resection. Here we report the first systematic review and meta-analysis of seizure outcomes following corpus callosotomy for drug-resistant epilepsy in both adults and children. A number of variables, including corpus callosotomy extent, epilepsy etiology, epilepsy duration, electroencephalography (EEG) results, and MRI findings were examined as possible predictors of complete seizure freedom or freedom from drop attacks postoperatively. Corpus