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The Chemotherapy of Intracranial Infections

IV. The Treatment of Pneumococcal Meningitis by Intrathecal Administration of Penicillin

Cobb Pilcher and William F. Meacham

six recoveries among the treated dogs. * Five control dogs did not survive three days and six control dogs died in the three-to-seven day period On the other hand, only one treated dog died within three days and only one other in the three-to-seven day period. Fig. 4. In these animals, as in the previous groups, the cerebrospinal fluid presented a striking contrast in the treated and untreated groups ( Fig. 5 ). Fig. 5. Specimens of cerebrospinal fluid obtained from simultaneously infected groups of treated and untreated animals two days after

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The Lucite Calvarium—A Method for Direct Observation of the Brain

I. The Surgical and Lucite Processing Techniques

C. Hunter Shelden, Robert H. Pudenz, Joseph S. Restarski and Winchell McK. Craig

described for the permanent replacement of the convex portion of the skull of experimental animals by a transparent lucite plate. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The window used by Ravina consisted of a hollow wooden tube, one end of which was fixed into a trephine opening in a dog's skull and the other closed by a watch glass. Ravina noted pulsation of the brain synchronous with the cardiac pulse and with respiration. Such movement was obviously made possible by the column of air in the wooden tube. In 1850, Donders 2 cemented square glass windows into the skull defects

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A. Earl Walker, Jerry J. Kollros and Theodore J. Case

or no deflection. Blood-pressure recordings were usually made from the carotid artery in the cat, although in the dog and monkey the femoral artery was used. The electrocardiogram was taken from leads to one forelimb and the muscles of the back, or from an Adrian-Bronk needle inserted in the mediastinum. The brains of all animals were examined. A small subarachnoid hemorrhage at the base of the brain was the most common finding, but in those animals that had sustained only one blow the brain usually appeared normal grossly. We doubt that the subarachnoid

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Norman C. Delarue, Eric A. Linell and Kenneth G. McKenzie

significantly thickened when compared with the reaction caused by the tantalum. As would be expected adhesion of the dura mater to the traumatized leptomeninges and cortex was a uniform finding when tantalum was not placed in the sub-dural space. Fig. 1. Dura mater thickened to 4 mm. overlying tantalum foil placed in the subdural space over this dog's right cerebral hemisphere 2 months before death. The thickened dura mater has compressed the underlying cerebral cortex. The left hemisphere shows the uniform picture of adhesion of dura mater and leptomeninges to a

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W. K. Welch and Margaret A. Kennard

been recorded. Alajouanine 1 produced paraplegia in flexion in the dog by bilateral, midline cortical ablations. Hines 7 noted permanent shortening of the hamstring muscles following unilateral ablation of areas 4 and 4 s in monkeys. Walshe 16 correlated extensor tonus following cord injury with damage to the pyramidal tract, and flexor reflex exaggeration with more extensive lesions involving extrapyramidal tracts as well. Flexion of the extremities, however, is not remarkable following unilateral or bilateral seriatim ablations from area 6, the principal

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Daniel Weller

simulating the panting of a dog, and varied from 60 to 112 a minute. The breathing was so labored that each inspiration and expiration was attended by a simultaneous lateral propulsion of the head as the accessory muscles of respiration came into play. This hyperpneic phase, which lasted from a few hours to as long as forty hours, then subsided until the respirations were down to 8 to 10 a minute. During this apneic phase, which often persisted for as long as sixteen hours, she was comatose. Roentgenologic examination of the chest on October 23 revealed changes

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Edgar F. Fincher, Bronson S. Ray, Harold J. Stewart, Edgar F. Fincher, T. C. Erickson, L. W. Paul, Franc D. Ingraham, Orville T. Bailey, Frank E. Nulsen, James W. Watts, Walter Freeman, C. G. de Gutiérrez-Mahoney, Frank Turnbull, Carl F. List, William J. German, A. Earl Walker, J. Grafton Love, Francis C. Grant, I. M. Tarlov, Thomas I. Hoen and Rupert B. Raney

have followed one case four years. Dr. Paul C. Bucy : I agree with Dr. White. There are three nerves supplying the carotid sinus. Code and Dingle showed, at least to my satisfaction, that in the dog the carotid sinus nerve is a branch of the ninth nerve while the vagus and sympathetic nerves have nothing to do with the pressor mechanism. These experiments by Dr. Ray are most interesting but I would suggest another possible explanation of the changes that occur following procainization on the side deprived of ninth nerve innervation. This extensive procaine

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Paul Weiss

been used in connection with tubulation, mostly with little knowledge of, and regard for, the requirements of nerve growth. The most spectacular mistake has been the suggestion of Edinger (30) to fill tubes with agar-agar or gelatine, on the supposition that nerves would easily pervade that mass because of its “softness.” The method proved a complete failure (34, 35, 36, 39, 40, 41, 42, 44). So did the fantastically unrealistic charging of tubes with dog's fat, fat mixed with lecithin, and brain pulp (39). Of course, no filling that does not afford abundant internal

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I. M. Tarlov and J. A. Epstein

red lead and glue was injected intraarterially. Autologous sciatic nerve grafts 3 cm. long were used in all instances and sutured by the combined silk-autologous plasma clot technique. A, Well-vascularized graft. B, Opposite sciatic nerve of the same dog in which, following excision of a 3-cm. segment, the nerve ends were sutured directly under tension. Note the virtual absence of injected blood vessels in the distal segment. * The injection was done 50 days after operation. C, Well-vascularized graft 26 days after operation. D, E, Grafts to which fat

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Marcus Singer

of the divided sciatic nerve of the dog with catgut or silk. Fig 9. Change in the tensile strength of the suture line during the early postoperative days. The manner in which the stumps separated at the limiting tension revealed that a decided drop in the tensile strength of the film occurred during the early postoperative period. Indeed, the film at this time proved to be the weakest link in the union. These results differ from those obtained in vitro where the strength of the film always surpassed the limiting strength of the union. Even after