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Katelyn Donaldson, Katherine E. Callahan, Aaron Gelinne, Wyll Everett, S. Elizabeth Ames, Ellen L. Air, and Susan R. Durham

medical specialties. 1 The gender gap in neurosurgery widens over the course of a neurosurgery career, as women currently compose only 7.4% of all practicing board-certified neurosurgeons within the US. 3 Female neurosurgeons have been shown to have a higher rate of attrition during residency and a lower rate of board certification than males, both factors that profoundly influence the gender distribution of the neurosurgical workforce. 4 , 5 Efforts to improve the gender gap in neurosurgery have recently been undertaken, as the benefits of diversity

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Jean-Paul Bryant, Diana I. Nwokoye, MaKayla F. Cox, and Nnenna S. Mbabuike

T he foundation of global medicine is rooted in inequity and discrimination manifesting in the historical exclusivity of its membership. Despite recent progress in inclusivity, representation is still disproportional to the diversity reflected in the population. Within the US, women make up 35.2% of practicing physicians. 1 In 2019, Black women represented 6.8% of the US population but represented 2.4% of all practicing physicians. 2 , 3 Women make up only 12.98% of practicing surgeons in the US. 4 Of this 12.98%, Black women represent 0.074%. 5

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Neha Siddiqui, Ryan G. Chiu, Ravi S. Nunna, Georgia Glastris, and Ankit I. Mehta

Section 907, aimed to address the lack of diversity in device clinical trials by mandating the reporting of gender distributions within new device applications and encouraging the voluntary display of race and ethnicity data. However, there has been no study to date assessing the diversity of neurosurgical device clinical trials. Using the FDA’s online database of approved devices, we investigate the effectiveness of FDASIA in affecting the diversity within these studies. Methods Data Source The FDA’s online PMA database was queried for all original class

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Susumu Ito, Ken'ichi Sekido, Hiroshi Kanno, Hironobu Sato, Masaaki Tanaka, Kazuo Yamaguchi, and Isao Yamamoto

important role in the clinical manifestation of craniofacial syndromes. In addition, other mechanisms related to the control of suture fusion were also studied, including transforming growth factor—β, homeobox-containing genes, hedgehog gene, TWIST gene, and neural epidermal growth factor—like gene. 37 In view of the phenotypic diversity within the same mutation in the FGFR2 gene, it appears possible that other disease-modifying genetic factors may exist to control the abnormal gain-of-function FGFR signaling. Conclusions The phenotypes of patients with

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Deborah L. Benzil, Karin M. Muraszko, Pranay Soni, Ellen L. Air, Katie O. Orrico, and James T. Rutka

, honored guests, etc., because there is clear evidence that diversity is a critical factor in changing the culture and reducing the marginalization of minorities. 44 , 45 Through diversity lies the successful future of neurosurgery and all of medicine. Survey studies always have their challenges. As with other survey studies, our response rate was low, although it was similar to several recent large neurosurgical surveys published (14% and 15%). 46 Thus, the responses may not truly reflect the profile or experience of all neurosurgeons (nonresponse bias). Ideally, much

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Deborah L. Benzil, Karin M. Muraszko, Pranay Soni, Ellen L. Air, Katie O. Orrico, and James T. Rutka

mechanism to report sexual harassment that occurs outside the realm of individual, institutional reporting when applicable. As one example, appropriate planning of social events and limitation of alcohol in settings where there is an increased risk of sexual harassment should be considered. The establishment of “best practices” for social events should be adopted across all neurosurgical organizations and settings. Neurosurgical organizations must select diverse scientific panels, podium speakers, honored guests, etc., because there is clear evidence that diversity is a

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Ahmad Ozair, Vivek Bhat, and Anil Nanda

BY-NC-SA 4.0 license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/ ). Figure is available in color online only. Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Go Together in Society and Neurosurgery Many powerful happenstances came together to help the early growth of Asia’s first female neurosurgeon, indicating how diversity in neurosurgery will go hand in hand with the progressive values and enabling forces of the society around it, a key consideration for educators and leaders aspiring to make neurosurgery more diverse. 25 It so transpired that Kanaka was

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Marianne I. J. Tissot, Andre E. Boyke, Alvin Onyewuenyi, Gregory Glauser, Evalyn S. Mackenzie, Bethany J. Thach, and Donald K. E. Detchou

TO THE EDITOR: As the US grows increasingly diverse, it is crucial to develop a healthcare system in which shared ethnic background, language, gender, and sexual orientation foster connections between physicians and their patients. The article by Corley and colleagues 1 is instrumental in improving medical care through increased diversity, and we believe now is the time to wholeheartedly embrace and embody the changing facets of American society ( Corley J, Kim E, Philips CA, et al. One hundred years of neurosurgery: contributions of American women. J

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Ellie Edlmann, Phillip Copley, Mark Hughes, and Julie Woodfield

TO THE EDITOR: For some time there has been no gender gap among students graduating from medical school, putting in sharp relief how far behind we are regarding gender equality in neurosurgery. We read with interest the article by Donaldson et al., 1 in which the authors identified the large gender gap between men (82%) and women (18%) in US neurosurgical residency programs ( Donaldson K, Callahan KE, Gelinne A, et al. Gender diversity in United States neurosurgery training programs. J Neurosurg . Published online January 29, 2021. DOI: 10.3171/2020.7.JNS

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Aruna Ganju, Uma V. Mahajan, Hanna Kemeny, H. Gregory Frankel, and Deborah L. Benzil

world have demonstrated that companies with higher proportions of female representation on company boards and in executive positions have continually outperformed their competitors with respect to risk management, operating results, return on equity, and stock growth. 7 Despite this compelling evidence, the healthcare sector has fallen behind with respect to females in leadership positions. Visibility of diversity within leadership positions, award winners, invited lectureships, and honored guest speakers within medical specialty organizations and conferences has