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Darryl Lau, Anthony M. DiGiorgio, Andrew K. Chan, Cecilia L. Dalle Ore, Michael S. Virk, Dean Chou, Erica F. Bisson and Praveen V. Mummaneni

A nterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) has been shown to produce significant improvements in pain and disability in patients with cervical degenerative disease, as indicated by improvements in metrics, such as Neck Disability Index (NDI) and visual analog scale (VAS) scores for neck and arm pain. 14 , 35 However, outcomes following ACDF are variable, and not all patients experience symptomatic improvement. A meta-analysis by Zhang et al. found that approximately 20% of patients do not achieve a meaningful improvement in disability following ACDF

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Hugo F. den Boogert, Joost C. Keers, D. L. Marinus Oterdoom and Jos M. A. Kuijlen

T he prevalence of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) is rising because of aging populations, and the condition can lead to serious functional disability and a decrease in quality of life among these patients. 8 , 18 , 20 , 44 , 53 , 61 DLSS is currently the most common indication for spinal surgery in patients older than 65 years, 13 , 19 , 20 , 53 , 56 and several studies have shown better surgical results over more conservative therapies. 2 , 5 , 6 , 10 , 25 , 27 , 38 , 63 However, open conventional laminectomy has been criticized because of

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Matthew J. McGirt, Mohamad Bydon, Kristin R. Archer, Clinton J. Devin, Silky Chotai, Scott L. Parker, Hui Nian, Frank E. Harrell Jr., Theodore Speroff, Robert S. Dittus, Sharon E. Philips, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Kevin T. Foley and Anthony L. Asher

improvement opportunities in spine surgery involve optimizing outcomes of greatest importance to patients, specifically relief of pain and improvement of quality of life (QOL) as well as decrease of disability. Using data from the Quality Outcomes Database (QOD), formerly known as the N 2 QOD, we set out with the primary goal of creating a clinically relevant predictive model for postoperative disability, QOL, and pain severity. Methods The QOD Registry Data from patients undergoing elective spine surgery for degenerative lumbar disease were entered into the multicenter

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Matthew C. Davis, Betsy D. Hopson, Jeffrey P. Blount, Rachel Carroll, Tracey S. Wilson, Danielle K. Powell, Amie B. Jackson McLain and Brandon G. Rocque

S pinal dysraphism is the most common congenital abnormality of the spinal cord and the most complex congenital condition with high rates of survival into adulthood. 6 While 75% of these individuals can expect to reach adulthood, 6 , 10 there is great variability in the range and degree of disability, 21 and multiple medical and psychosocial limitations pose challenges to full community engagement. Results of studies on the impact of medical factors on quality of life and employment status among adults with spina bifida are conflicting. 2 , 8 , 10 , 31

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Martin Sánchez-Aguilar, J. Humberto Tapia-Pérez, José Juan Sánchez-Rodríguez, Juan Manuel Viñas-Ríos, Patricia Martínez-Pérez, Esperanza de la Cruz-Mendoza, Martin Sánchez-Reyna, Jaime Gerardo Torres-Corzo and Antonio Gordillo-Moscoso

IL-10. Methods Patient Population We conducted this randomized clinical placebo-controlled study at one hospital (Hospital Central “Dr. Ignacio Morones Prieto,” San Luis Potosí, México). Eligible patients ranged in age from 16 to 60 years with moderate to severe TBI (GCS score < 13) and intracranial lesions, as noted on CT scanning. Eligible patients were available for randomization within the first 24 hours after TBI. Exclusion criteria were predated head injury or severe disability due to neurological or psychiatric disease. Other exclusion criteria

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Dana L. Cruz, Ethan W. Ayres, Matthew A. Spiegel, Louis M. Day, Robert A. Hart, Christopher P. Ames, Douglas C. Burton, Justin S. Smith, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Frank J. Schwab, Thomas J. Errico, Shay Bess, Virginie Lafage and Themistocles S. Protopsaltis

C ombinations of back and/or neck pain are estimated to affect a significant proportion of the US adult population, resulting in disability, missed work days, and high healthcare costs. 8 , 16 Driven by the ubiquity of these complaints, several authors have developed formal questionnaires quantifying the pain and disability related to back and neck pain. 5 , 14 , 15 , 19 The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was first published in 1976 and remains the most commonly used condition-specific outcome measure for spinal disorders. 5 , 17 This questionnaire is a 10

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Jeremy C. T. Fairbank

T he purpose of this short article is to update readers on the current status of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). The ODI was first published 33 years ago. 3 It has been extraordinarily successful. Many questionnaires are developed; some are published, and most are forgotten. The journey of the ODI has coincided with my professional career, and this has been important in its development and the protection of its integrity. It took 4 years to develop the ODI before publication, and my coauthors and I did our best, according to the knowledge and

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Laura E. L. Pettigrew, J. T. Lindsay Wilson and Graham M. Teasdale

T he Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), devised by Jennett and Bond, 9 is the most widely used method to assess patient outcome in the 1st year after traumatic head injury. It is popular because it allows overall patient disability to be assessed without the need for a detailed neurological and psychological assessment, and it has been recommended as a key outcome measure for clinical trials. 3 However, limitations of the GOS are being reported: the categories used are broad and the scale does not allow subtle improvements in functional status of an individual to

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Joon K. Song, Fernando Viñuela, Y. Pierre Gobin, Gary R. Duckwiler, Yuichi Murayama, Inam Kureshi, John G. Frazee and Neil A. Martin

grades ( Table 1 ) were recorded prior to any intervention and at last clinical follow-up examination. TABLE 1 Grading of gait and micturition disabilities according to the Aminoff—Logue Scale Grade Definition gait  0 normal  1 leg weakness, abnormal gait or stance but no restriction of  activity  2 restricted activity but not requiring support  3 requiring 1 stick for walking  4 requiring 2 sticks, crutches, or walker  5 confined to wheelchair micturition  0

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Øystein Vesterli Tveiten, Matthew L. Carlson, Frederik Goplen, Erling Myrseth, Colin L. W. Driscoll, Rupavathana Mahesparan, Michael J. Link and Morten Lund-Johansen

previous studies, HB Grades I and II were defined as good outcomes following treatment. All VS patients and healthy controls completed the Facial Disability Index (FDI) questionnaire (see below) a mean of 7.7 years after treatment or diagnosis. 50 Tumor size was determined using to the American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS) classification: 1 size was calculated on the axial image showing the largest tumor, and 2 linear measurements were made from this image: 1) diameter of tumor in the direction of the petrous ridge and 2) maximum diameter