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Hugo F. den Boogert, Joost C. Keers, D. L. Marinus Oterdoom and Jos M. A. Kuijlen

T he prevalence of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) is rising because of aging populations, and the condition can lead to serious functional disability and a decrease in quality of life among these patients. 8 , 18 , 20 , 44 , 53 , 61 DLSS is currently the most common indication for spinal surgery in patients older than 65 years, 13 , 19 , 20 , 53 , 56 and several studies have shown better surgical results over more conservative therapies. 2 , 5 , 6 , 10 , 25 , 27 , 38 , 63 However, open conventional laminectomy has been criticized because of

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Matthew J. McGirt, Mohamad Bydon, Kristin R. Archer, Clinton J. Devin, Silky Chotai, Scott L. Parker, Hui Nian, Frank E. Harrell Jr., Theodore Speroff, Robert S. Dittus, Sharon E. Philips, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Kevin T. Foley and Anthony L. Asher

improvement opportunities in spine surgery involve optimizing outcomes of greatest importance to patients, specifically relief of pain and improvement of quality of life (QOL) as well as decrease of disability. Using data from the Quality Outcomes Database (QOD), formerly known as the N 2 QOD, we set out with the primary goal of creating a clinically relevant predictive model for postoperative disability, QOL, and pain severity. Methods The QOD Registry Data from patients undergoing elective spine surgery for degenerative lumbar disease were entered into the multicenter

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Martin Sánchez-Aguilar, J. Humberto Tapia-Pérez, José Juan Sánchez-Rodríguez, Juan Manuel Viñas-Ríos, Patricia Martínez-Pérez, Esperanza de la Cruz-Mendoza, Martin Sánchez-Reyna, Jaime Gerardo Torres-Corzo and Antonio Gordillo-Moscoso

IL-10. Methods Patient Population We conducted this randomized clinical placebo-controlled study at one hospital (Hospital Central “Dr. Ignacio Morones Prieto,” San Luis Potosí, México). Eligible patients ranged in age from 16 to 60 years with moderate to severe TBI (GCS score < 13) and intracranial lesions, as noted on CT scanning. Eligible patients were available for randomization within the first 24 hours after TBI. Exclusion criteria were predated head injury or severe disability due to neurological or psychiatric disease. Other exclusion criteria

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Matthew C. Davis, Betsy D. Hopson, Jeffrey P. Blount, Rachel Carroll, Tracey S. Wilson, Danielle K. Powell, Amie B. Jackson McLain and Brandon G. Rocque

S pinal dysraphism is the most common congenital abnormality of the spinal cord and the most complex congenital condition with high rates of survival into adulthood. 6 While 75% of these individuals can expect to reach adulthood, 6 , 10 there is great variability in the range and degree of disability, 21 and multiple medical and psychosocial limitations pose challenges to full community engagement. Results of studies on the impact of medical factors on quality of life and employment status among adults with spina bifida are conflicting. 2 , 8 , 10 , 31

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Jeremy C. T. Fairbank

T he purpose of this short article is to update readers on the current status of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). The ODI was first published 33 years ago. 3 It has been extraordinarily successful. Many questionnaires are developed; some are published, and most are forgotten. The journey of the ODI has coincided with my professional career, and this has been important in its development and the protection of its integrity. It took 4 years to develop the ODI before publication, and my coauthors and I did our best, according to the knowledge and

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Laura E. L. Pettigrew, J. T. Lindsay Wilson and Graham M. Teasdale

T he Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), devised by Jennett and Bond, 9 is the most widely used method to assess patient outcome in the 1st year after traumatic head injury. It is popular because it allows overall patient disability to be assessed without the need for a detailed neurological and psychological assessment, and it has been recommended as a key outcome measure for clinical trials. 3 However, limitations of the GOS are being reported: the categories used are broad and the scale does not allow subtle improvements in functional status of an individual to

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Joon K. Song, Fernando Viñuela, Y. Pierre Gobin, Gary R. Duckwiler, Yuichi Murayama, Inam Kureshi, John G. Frazee and Neil A. Martin

grades ( Table 1 ) were recorded prior to any intervention and at last clinical follow-up examination. TABLE 1 Grading of gait and micturition disabilities according to the Aminoff—Logue Scale Grade Definition gait  0 normal  1 leg weakness, abnormal gait or stance but no restriction of  activity  2 restricted activity but not requiring support  3 requiring 1 stick for walking  4 requiring 2 sticks, crutches, or walker  5 confined to wheelchair micturition  0

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Øystein Vesterli Tveiten, Matthew L. Carlson, Frederik Goplen, Erling Myrseth, Colin L. W. Driscoll, Rupavathana Mahesparan, Michael J. Link and Morten Lund-Johansen

previous studies, HB Grades I and II were defined as good outcomes following treatment. All VS patients and healthy controls completed the Facial Disability Index (FDI) questionnaire (see below) a mean of 7.7 years after treatment or diagnosis. 50 Tumor size was determined using to the American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS) classification: 1 size was calculated on the axial image showing the largest tumor, and 2 linear measurements were made from this image: 1) diameter of tumor in the direction of the petrous ridge and 2) maximum diameter

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Avery J. Evans, Kevin E. Kip and Selene M. Boutin

effect on a patient’s mood. 14 The 36-Item Short Form Health Survey is a general health questionnaire that addresses health status in patients of all ages and does not focus on back pain. 17 The ODI questionnaire is a frequently used instrument, but it is limited to measuring 10 dimensions of low-back pain and functional disability and does not capture the extent of pain. 5 To address this need for a single questionnaire specific to back pain in the elderly population, members of our group previously developed a pilot instrument specific to patients undergoing

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Malgorzata A. Kolodziej, Stephan Koblitz, Christopher Nimsky and Dieter Hellwig

for concussions than their male counterparts. A different study by Delaney et al. 13 and a work by Biros 6 suggested that younger players may be more at risk for concussions because of their thinner skulls or larger heads. Conclusions Seemingly trivial soccer head injuries can have a long and complicated course. Nevertheless, the temporary disability is shorter in most patients than in the group of players with an injury in other parts of the body. Disclosure The authors report no conflict of interest concerning the materials or methods used in this