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Gary K. Steinberg, Nariman Panahian, Go-Hua Sun, Carolina M. Maier and David Kunis

the intraluminal suture model and examined histopathology 72 hours following the onset of ischemia. Kimura and his colleagues 15 recently presented some pilot studies using a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia to evaluate ischemic edema with diffusion weighted MR imaging. They found that a single 40-minute occlusion period or two 20-minute occlusion periods separated by 20 minutes of reperfusion allowed diffusion-weighted imaging hyperintensity to resolve, but two 20-minute occlusions separated by 60 minutes of reperfusion resulted in persistence of the ischemic

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Hitoshi Matsuzawa, Ingrid L. Kwee and Tsutomu Nakada

extraction of anisotropic components as anisotropic diffusion vector D app A by isotropic elimination (see Appendix 2 for details). Contrary to intuition, this algorithm calls for very simple implementation processes that ensure immediate clinical application. Only three axial anisotropic diffusion weighted images (DWIs) have to be obtained. The trichromatic characteristics of visible light, 4 namely, elimination of hue by the summation of three primary colors of the same intensity, and correlation of hue (color frequency) to a specific ratio of these three primary

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Junki Ito, Anthony Marmarou, Pál Barzó, Panos Fatouros and Frank Corwin

cerebral ischemia in rats by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance microscopy. Stroke 23 : 746 – 754 , 1992 Benveniste HD, Hedlund LW, Johnson GA: Mechanism of detection of acute cerebral ischemia in rats by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance microscopy. Stroke 23: 746–754, 1992 2. Busza AL , Allen KL , van Bruggen N , et al : Diffusion-weighted imaging studies of cerebral ischemia in gerbils. Potential relevance to energy failure. Stroke 23 : 1602 – 1612 , 1992 Busza AL, Allen KL, van Bruggen N, et

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1 91 96 10.3171/jns.1996.84.1.0091 Characterization of edema by diffusion-weighted imaging in experimental traumatic brain injury Junki Ito Anthony Marmarou Pál Barzó Panos Fatouros Frank Corwin January 1996 84 1 97 103 10.3171/jns.1996.84.1.0097 Multilevel anterior thoracic discectomies and anterior interbody fusion using a microsurgical thoracoscopic approach Curtis A. Dickman Camilla A. Mican January 1996 84 1 104 109 10.3171/jns.1996.84.1.0104 Pott's puffy tumor: the forgotten entity Ramesh P. Babu

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Yaron River, Allan Schwartz, John M. Gomori, Dov Soffer and Tali Siegal

effects unrelated to cerebral blood volume. In two studies diffusion-weighted images were obtained as described by Zur, et al. 22 Meningeal enhancement was diagnosed whenever a post-Gd-DTPA MR image showed thickened meninges with an increased signal that exceeded the gray matter and normal dura (for example, in areas with focal dural enhancement the dural signal exceeded the adjacent signal of the normal dura). We excluded the patients with a dural signal exceeding the gray matter but not normal dura. Likewise, we excluded patients with normal dural thickness

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Pál Barzó, Anthony Marmarou, Panos Fatouros, Koji Hayasaki and Frank Corwin

the opportunity of early detection and differentiation of the edema formation. The first of these novel imaging techniques is diffusion-weighted imaging. Because it has additional strong magnetic field gradients, this method is sensitive to the random, microscopic translational motion of water protons and provides an image of the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs). 28, 38 In our previous studies, a series of experiments was performed to follow the direction of ADC change to extracellular (vasogenic) and cellular (cytotoxic) forms of edema. In models producing

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87 6 893 899 10.3171/jns.1997.87.6.0893 Contribution of vasogenic and cellular edema to traumatic brain swelling measured by diffusion-weighted imaging Pál Barzó Anthony Marmarou Panos Fatouros Koji Hayasaki Frank Corwin December 1997 87 6 900 907 10.3171/jns.1997.87.6.0900 Augmentation of both hemolysate-induced contraction and activation of protein kinase C by submaximum activation in canine cerebral arteries in vitro Takakazu Kawamata John W. Peterson Takao Bun Nicholas T. Zervas December 1997 87

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Yukihiko Fujii, Naoki Nakayama and Tsutomu Nakada

anatomical resolution within a target structure. Standard clinical MR imaging studies are most commonly used to provide T 1 -weighted, T 2 -weighted, and proton density—weighted images, and, depending on the clinical situation, intravenous contrast—enhanced T 1 -weighted images. Other methods developed to increase detection sensitivity for specific pathological processes, such as diffusion-weighted images 5 and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery 4 are becoming increasingly popular. However, the implicit goal in the standard clinical application of any MR imaging method

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: Contribution of vasogenic and cellular edema to traumatic brain swelling measured by diffusion-weighted imaging. J Neurosurg 87 : 900 – 907 , 1997 Barzó P, Marmarou A, Fatouros P, et al: Contribution of vasogenic and cellular edema to traumatic brain swelling measured by diffusion-weighted imaging. J Neurosurg 87: 900–907, 1997 3. Cecil KM , Hills EC , Sandel ME , et al : Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for detection of axonal injury in the splenium of the corpus callosum of brain-injured patients. J Neurosurg

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Koen Engelborghs, Jan Verlooy, Jos Van Reempts, Bruno Van Deuren, Mies Van de Ven and Marcel Borgers

Goldstein M: Traumatic brain injury: a silent epidemic. Ann Neurol 27: 327, 1990 11. Ito J , Marmarou A , Barzó P , et al : Characterization of edema by diffusion weighted imaging in experimental traumatic brain injury. J Neurosurg 84 : 97 – 103 , 1996 Ito J, Marmarou A, Barzó P, et al: Characterization of edema by diffusion weighted imaging in experimental traumatic brain injury. J Neurosurg 84: 97–103, 1996 12. Lewis SB , Finnie JW , Blumbergs PC , et al : A head impact model of early