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Sanjiv Bhatia, John Ragheb, Mahlon Johnson, Sanghoon Oh, David I. Sandberg and Wei-Chiang Lin

propagation of light in biological tissue is governed by the morphological, biochemical, and physiological characteristics of the tissue; therefore, light provides a convenient, noninvasive means of characterizing tissue diseases and injuries. 4 , 35 , 38 , 42 , 55 There are 3 optical spectroscopy types that are used frequently in biomedicine to monitor light-tissue interaction and therefore to perform in vivo tissue characterization: diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, 6 , 7 , 9 , 12 , 13 , 19 , 20 , 25 , 30 , 34 , 39 , 48 , 50 , 54 , 56–58 fluorescence spectroscopy, 26

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Damon DePaoli, Laurent Goetz, Dave Gagnon, Gabriel Maranon, Michel Prud’homme, Léo Cantin, Martin Parent and Daniel C. Côté

diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), we use the entire visible and near-infrared (NIR) spectrum to locate target brain structures, such as the STN, as well as blood vessels along the trajectory path of the chronic DBS electrode, during implantations in nonhuman primates (NHPs). We also set out to show that we are able to sense missed trajectories and that the optical information acquired correlates with MERs. The technique is designed to supplement the information gained following microelectrode mapping, during the insertion of the chronic electrode; however, this

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Pablo A. Valdés, David W. Roberts, Fa-Ke Lu, PhD and Alexandra Golby

this initial implementation of fluorescence technology and biomarker use in major trials to date, multiple additional optical tools or technologies are beginning to enter the clinical arena, including diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and imaging, optical coherence tomography (OCT), Raman spectroscopy, and quantitative methods, including quantitative fluorescence, lifetime imaging, and beyond ( Tables 1 and 2 ). Here we present a clinically relevant and technologically informed overview of some of the major clinical implementations of optical technologies as