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Charles H. Crawford III, Leah Y. Carreon, Mohamad Bydon, Anthony L. Asher and Steven D. Glassman

is based on well-defined diagnostic criteria including primary disc herniation, recurrent disc herniation, spondylolisthesis, stenosis, adjacent segment disease, and mechanical disc collapse. Diagnosis is based on the treating surgeon's assessment ( Table 1 ). 11 Patient outcomes data are collected in person or via telephone follow-up using standardized questionnaires. Radiographic data are not collected. TABLE 1. Six lumbar disease states and their definitions for inclusion into the registry Disease State Definition Symptomatic primary lumbar disc herniation

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Claire L. Gordon, Rafal Tokarz, Thomas Briese, W. Ian Lipkin, Komal Jain, Susan Whittier, Jayesh Shah, E. Sander Connolly and Michael T. Yin

V entriculostomy devices are used in the management of acute hydrocephalus by providing therapeutic drainage of CSF and intracranial pressure monitoring. However, ventriculostomy-related infections (VRIs) frequently occur, causing significant morbidity and mortality. 6 Diagnosis of ventriculomeningitis is difficult because similar clinical and CSF parameters are often present after intraventricular hemorrhage and neurosurgery. 5 To reduce the risk of VRIs, many institutions use prolonged antibiotic “prophylaxis” during the use of ventriculostomy devices

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Yukihiko Sonoda, Toshihiro Kumabe, Shin-Ichiro Sugiyama, Masayuki Kanamori, Yoji Yamashita, Ryuta Saito, Hisanori Ariga, Yoshihiro Takai and Teiji Tominaga

onset to diagnosis or treatment, initial and further treatment, and outcome. Results Patient Characteristics Table 1 summarizes the clinical characteristics of the 14 patients with basal ganglia GCT. All 14 patients were male and their ages ranged from 7 to 31 years (median 12 years, mean 13.4 years). The histological diagnosis was obtained in 13 cases: germinoma in 9 (7 pure germinoma, 2 germinoma with STGCs), non-germinoma GCT in 4 (2 mixed GCTs, 1 embryonal carcinoma, and 1 immature teratoma). The mixed GCTs consisted of germinoma, embryonal carcinoma

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Morio Matsumoto, Masayuki Ishikawa, Ken Ishii, Takashi Nishizawa, Hirofumi Maruiwa, Masaya Nakamura, Kazuhiro Chiba and Yoshiaki Toyama

S espite recent advances in diagnostic imaging modalities, neurological examination remains the most important and indispensable aspect of diagnosing CCM. When considering surgical treatments for this disease, it is necessary to locate the spinal level that is responsible for neurological deficits and that should be decompressed. There are numerous published reports involving the neurological diagnosis of the responsible spinal level in cases of cervical radiculopathy. 4, 7, 11 In textbooks including that written by Hoppenfeld 4 authors describe in detail

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Xin-Zhi Sun, Zhong-Qiang Chen, Qiang Qi, Zhao-Qing Guo, Chui-Guo Sun, Wei-Shi Li and Yan Zeng

important information for determining the surgical procedure preoperatively. The tram track sign has been described as useful in identifying DO in patients with OLF in the absence of an empirical evaluation of its clinical value. 17 This retrospective study aimed to investigate the value of the tram track sign and Sato classification for preoperative diagnosis of DO and to examine the potential influence of DO on neurological recovery after surgery. Methods Patient Population Thirty-six patients were enrolled in this retrospective study of patients with OLF who

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Susanna Bacigaluppi, Amir R. Dehdashti, Ronit Agid, Timo Krings, Michael Tymianski and David J. Mikulis

T his review will present different imaging techniques and their contribution to the evaluation of patients with moyamoya disease. Baseline and Morphological Studies The Angiography Method The first description of a case of moyamoya disease was based on diagnostic catheter cerebral angiography. 43 , 77 , 80 Catheter angiography still represents the gold standard for moyamoya diagnosis. Three features usually characterize the vascular picture on angiography studies: stenosis of the supraclinoid distal ICA; the development of dilated striate

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Mirza N. Baig, Ali Raza, Moumen Asbahi and Scott Elton

M agnetic resonance imaging is the preferred neuroimaging modality for the diagnosis of CM-I. 5 Sagittal views are especially useful in measuring the tonsillar displacement with respect to the foramen magnum. 1 , 3 , 5 Computed tomography scanning of the head, however, is performed far more frequently in children than MR imaging for a multitude of reasons. As part of the workup, radiologists routinely comment on the position of the cerebellar tonsils in relation to the foramen magnum. Based on suspicious CT findings, the radiologist may recommend further

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Russell R. Lonser, Lynnette Nieman and Edward H. Oldfield

immediate biochemical remission and preservation of pituitary function. Early identification of CD by clinical findings, endocrinological evaluation, and imaging studies is critical for diagnosis and effective surgical management. Endocrinological and Clinical Features Endocrinological Features Normal Physiology Insight into the normal and pathophysiological mechanisms of control of the hypothalamic–anterior pituitary–adrenal axis is critical to understanding the pathologic, diagnostic, and therapeutic features of CD ( Fig. 1 ). 52 Under normal

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Won-Ik Cho and Ung-Kyu Chang

typically accumulate FDG, while traumatic fractures are not expected to significantly accumulate FDG and typically result in negative PET findings. This characteristic allows a quantitative assessment of the uptake in the lesions. The advantages of using quantitative analyses to diagnose the lesion are the reduction in the operator dependency of the result and the ability to establish quantitative criteria for making correct diagnoses. 7 This quantitative aspect of PET is very useful in the differential diagnosis of VCFs. One of the most common methods used to quantify

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J. Chris Balhuizen, Gerard Th. A. M. Bots, Aart Schaberg and Fré T. Bosman

from our records the relevant data of all patients given surgical treatment for, or whose death had been caused by, intracerebral primary or secondary tumors and patients operated on for vertebral or peridural metastases between 1963 and 1973, and whose CSF or tumor-cyst aspirates (TCA) had been subjected to cytological examination. In all of these cases the diagnosis was verified by histological examination of biopsy or autopsy material. For all CSF samples, the location of the puncture (for example, lumbar, ventricular, or suboccipital) and the time of sampling