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Joseph T. King Jr., Amin B. Kassam, Howard Yonas, Michael B. Horowitz and Mark S. Roberts

-item SF Health Survey, 31 is a written survey that provides an MCS (an assessment of general mental health) and a physical component summary. The MCS and physical component survey scores from the SF-12 are highly correlated with those from the parent survey. 29 The HAD Scale 33 is a validated screening tool to detect anxiety and depression in outpatient and hospital settings and has been used in patients with cerebrovascular disease. 5, 28 Mental health outcomes in patients with cerebral aneurysms have received relatively little attention. Authors of outcome

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Chloe O’Connell, Tej Deepak Azad, Vaishali Mittal, Daniel Vail, Eli Johnson, Atman Desai, Eric Sun, John K. Ratliff and Anand Veeravagu

M ajor depressive disorder is the leading cause of disability among people between the ages of 15 and 44 years, with a 12-month prevalence of 6.6% and a lifetime prevalence of 16.2%. 7 , 16 The relationship between depression and low-back pain is well established, 7 with depressive symptomatology linked to a more than 2-fold increase in the odds of low-back pain in 1 study. 25 Despite this association, as well as the link between depression and adverse outcomes after many types of surgery, 5 , 21 the impact of depression on outcomes following lumbar fusion

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Arja Mainio, Helinä Hakko, Asko Niemelä, John Koivukangas and Pirkko Räsänen

D epression as a neuropsychiatric symptom among patients with a primary brain tumor is common, 53 varying from 15 to 38% in different study populations. 3, 31, 41, 43, 54 Nevertheless, it is difficult to differentiate which of the depressive symptoms are caused by the neurophysiological effects of the tumor and which are the patient's psychological reactions to the stress caused by serious disease. 41, 43, 53 It is therefore important to measure depression by using a clinically valid method such as that in the study by Wellisch and colleagues. 54 These

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Jennifer A. McNab, Natalie L. Voets, Ned Jenkinson, Waney Squier, Karla L. Miller, Guy M. Goodwin and Tipu Z. Aziz

S tructural and metabolic brain abnormalities associated with depression have been noted in limbic, thalamic, and frontal lobe cortical regions. 9 The SACC has been shown to be hypermetabolic in depressed patients 11 with normalization following successful pharmacological treatment. 10 Deep brain stimulation of the white matter underlying the SACC is emerging as an effective treatment for chronic, treatment-resistant depression. 12 The mechanism of action of DBS remains unclear. However, mounting evidence suggests that the therapeutic effects of DBS in

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Lauren K. Dunn, Marcel E. Durieux, Lucas G. Fernández, Siny Tsang, Emily E. Smith-Straesser, Hasan F. Jhaveri, Shauna P. Spanos, Matthew R. Thames, Christopher D. Spencer, Aaron Lloyd, Russell Stuart, Fan Ye, Jacob P. Bray, Edward C. Nemergut and Bhiken I. Naik

P erception and severity of perioperative pain are influenced by various biological, cultural, and psychological factors. 31 The psychological factors that impact postoperative recovery include catastrophizing, anxiety, and depression. 4 Catastrophizing is an exaggerated behavioral response to anticipated or actual pain and influences the perception of pain. 10 , 33 It can account for between 7% and 13% of variation in pain scores. 31 Catastrophizing includes 3 components: magnification, rumination, and helplessness. 11 High levels of catastrophizing are

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Aviva Abosch and G. Rees Cosgrove

The Importance of a Biological/Mechanistic Approach to Surgery for Depression The successful application of DBS to the treatment of movement disorders 24 , 26 , 68 , 111 , 127 has renewed interest in the surgical treatment of depression. Although the field of psychosurgery has its roots in anecdotal experience as opposed to hypothesis-driven experimentation assessed with validated outcome measures, a new era is fortunately emerging. Advances in the field of neuroimaging have allowed the use of human participants for testing hypotheses about the mechanisms

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Rafa Rahman, Alvaro Ibaseta, Jay S. Reidler, Nicholas S. Andrade, Richard L. Skolasky, Lee H. Riley III, David B. Cohen, Daniel M. Sciubba, Khaled M. Kebaish and Brian J. Neuman

B efore undergoing spine surgery, some patients report symptoms of depression and anxiety. 1 , 9 , 13 Although the reported correlations between preoperative depression/anxiety and specific postoperative surgical outcomes vary, overall, outcomes after spine surgery or other surgical procedures are worse in patients with psychological distress. 3 , 7 , 10 , 12 We know less about how perioperative changes in depression and anxiety may affect postoperative outcomes. A simple correlation between preoperative psychological distress and postoperative outcomes may

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Aladine A. Elsamadicy, Owoicho Adogwa, Emily Lydon, Amanda Sergesketter, Rayan Kaakati, Ankit I. Mehta, Raul A. Vasquez, Joseph Cheng, Carlos A. Bagley and Isaac O. Karikari

D epression is the most common affective disorder in the United States, with 16.6% of the population experiencing at least 1 major depressive episode in their lifetime. 8 Patients with spinal deformity in particular have been shown to be at an increased risk for depression when compared with the general population. 12 , 21 Spinal deformities can cause body image dissatisfaction, physical disability, and chronic pain, all of which may limit psychosocial functioning and increase the risk of depression. 18 In addition, depression has been shown to be a

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Cristina D'Angelo, Antonio Mirijello, Lorenzo Leggio, Anna Ferrulli, Vincenzo Carotenuto, Nadia Icolaro, Antonio Miceli, Vincenzo D'Angelo, Giovanni Gasbarrini and Giovanni Addolorato

T UMORS of the central nervous system represent a risk factor for the development of affective disorders such as depression, anxiety, and panic attacks. 11 , 16 , 17 In particular, depression is common in patients with central nervous system tumors, 23 and the prevalence of depressive symptoms in these patients can vary from 15 to 38%. 4 , 18 Furthermore, recently it has been found that preoperative depression represents a prognostic factor for worse survival rates among patients affected by glioblastoma 13 and low-grade glioma. 17 Anxiety disorders

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Daniel Lubelski, Nicolas R. Thompson, Sachin Bansal, Thomas E. Mroz, Daniel J. Mazanec, Edward C. Benzel and Tagreed Khalaf

procedures such as epidural steroid injections, and membrane-stabilizing agents. Early identification of patients who are more likely to improve with conservative management can help lead to better outcomes and reduced costs. Previous studies have demonstrated a correlation between pretreatment depression and posttreatment pain and disability following lumbar spine surgery. 2–4 , 8 , 9 , 21 , 25 , 29 Those patients with more severe depression tend to have decreased improvements with lumbar surgery. No studies have investigated the impact of pretreatment psychosocial