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Makoto Saka, Takayuki Amano, Koji Kajiwara, Koichi Yoshikawa, Makoto Ideguchi, Sadahiro Nomura, Hirosuke Fujisawa, Shoichi Kato, Masami Fujii, Koji Ueno, Yuji Hinoda and Michiyasu Suzuki

of patients with GBM is only 9–12 months; 47 patients with GBM usually die within 2 years. The combination therapy of temozolomide with radiotherapy improved the survival time of patients with GBM by 2.5 months, but a complete cure has not been achieved. 29 , 49 , 50 Therefore, the development of new therapeutic strategies for malignant glioma is essential. Proposed investigations and ongoing clinical trials of immunotherapy have shown the effectiveness and possibility of clinical application of one of these new therapies, a dendritic cell–based vaccine, and many

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Linda M. Liau, Keith L. Black, Robert M. Prins, Steven N. Sykes, Pier-Luigi DiPatre, Timothy F. Cloughesy, Donald P. Becker and Jeff M. Bronstein

modes of therapy. Recent advances in the understanding of antigen presentation, antigen recognition requirements, and T-cell activation have centered around dendritic cells as a novel form of immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer. 2, 5, 16, 17, 22–24, 32–34, 39, 40 Dendritic cells are the most potent “professional” antigen-presenting cells in the body. Research evidence indicates that, although tumors may contain immunogenic antigens, tumor cells themselves are poor antigen-presenting cells. Therefore, professional antigen-presenting cells may be needed to

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Martin Hasselblatt, Abolghassem Sepehrnia, Marcus von Falkenhausen and Werner Paulus

F ollicular dendritic cell sarcoma is a rare neoplasm derived from antigen-presenting dendritic cells of the lymphoid follicle, characterized by expression of CD21, CD23, and CD35. 2, 4–6 Apart from cervical lymph nodes, a variety of extranodal sites may be affected, 1, 4 but to our knowledge an intracranial location of FDC sarcoma has not yet been reported. Because the diagnosis of FDC sarcoma may pose difficulties and may easily be missed, we report on a patient with intracranial FDC sarcoma to increase clinical awareness of this rare entity. Case

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Marion Rapp, Zakir Özcan, Hans-Jakob Steiger, Peter Wernet, Michael C. Sabel and Rüdiger V. Sorg

tissue, resulting in loss of function for the patient. Therefore, there is a strong need for novel therapeutic approaches in the treatment of malignant glioma. Immunotherapy that uses autologous DCs is such an approach that might allow induction of tumor-specific T-cell responses that could kill tumor cells specifically without damaging normal tissues. Dendritic cells are specialized antigen-presenting cells that are capable of initiating and polarizing T-cell responses. 3 , 23 They have a unique ability to capture antigens and, upon maturation, potently induce

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Keiichi Sakai, Shigetaka Shimodaira, Shinya Maejima, Nobuyuki Udagawa, Kenji Sano, Yumiko Higuchi, Terutsugu Koya, Takanaga Ochiai, Masanori Koide, Shunsuke Uehara, Midori Nakamura, Haruo Sugiyama, Yoshikazu Yonemitsu, Masato Okamoto and Kazuhiro Hongo

cancers. 29 Phase I and II clinical trials have been conducted with the WT1 peptide to treat various cancers, and the safety and efficacy results have been promising. 10 , 17 , 21 , 29 The WT1 antigen was designated “a cancer antigen having highest priority” in “The Prioritization of Cancer Antigens: A National Cancer Institute Pilot Project for the Acceleration of Translational Research.” 6 Vaccination with dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with TAAs is another recent promising immunotherapeutic approach for patients with carcinoma. 18 , 43 DCs are hematopoietically

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Jorgen Kjaergaard, Li-Xin Wang, Hideyuki Kuriyama, Suyu Shu and Gregory E. Plautz

found to be relatively ineffective tumor vaccines, prompting exploration of more potent cellular glioma vaccines. Dendritic cells are the most potent antigen-presenting cells and the only cells capable of activating naive T lymphocytes. 4 They normally function by acquiring antigens in peripheral tissues before migrating to secondary lymph tissues to process and present antigens to CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. Note that DCs loaded with various preparations derived from malignant cells have demonstrated substantial therapeutic efficacy in preclinical models of glioma

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Takayuki Amano, Koji Kajiwara, Koichi Yoshikawa, Jun Morioka, Sadahiro Nomura, Hirosuke Fujisawa, Shoichi Kato, Masami Fujii, Mikiko Fukui, Yuji Hinoda and Michiyasu Suzuki

, immunotherapy using dendritic cells, which are known as professional antigen-presenting cells, has been attempted in several studies. 8 , 20 , 38 Various forms of tumor antigens have been applied to improve the induction of specific antitumor immune responses; these include apoptotic tumor cells, tumor cell lysates, proteins, peptides, and nucleic acids. 4 , 7 , 18 , 20 , 32 , 35 , 36 , 43 , 44 , 46 Among these, mRNA seems to be the most pertinent form for evaluating whether a new candidate gene identified using serological screening of an expression library can be useful

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Ryuya Yamanaka, Susan A. Zullo, Jay Ramsey, Naoki Yajima, Naoto Tsuchiya, Ryuichi Tanaka, Michael Blaese and Kleanthis G. Xanthopoulos

T he prognosis of patients with malignant brain tumor has not improved much over the last few years, despite treatments such as surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Therefore, the development of novel therapies for malignant brain tumor is essential. The CNS is immunologically privileged, lacking lymphoid reactivity and normal immune surveillance. Recently, several groups have reported that immunotherapy protocols with intradermal vaccines of genetically modified tumor cells are effective in rodent brain tumor models. 12, 30 Dendritic cells are rare

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Ryuya Yamanaka, Susan A. Zullo, Ryuichi Tanaka, Michael Blaese and Kleanthis G. Xanthopoulos

used to treat experimental brain tumors, showed prolongation of survival in tumor-bearing animals and induction of a CTL response. Thus, the self-replicating SFV system may open novel approaches for the treatment of malignant glioma. References 1. Albert ML , Sauter B , Bhardwaj N : Dendritic cells acquire antigen from apoptotic cells and induce class I-restricted CTLs. Nature 392 : 86 – 89 , 1998 Albert ML, Sauter B, Bhardwaj N: Dendritic cells acquire antigen from apoptotic cells and induce class I

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Steven De Vleeschouwer, Frank Van Calenbergh, Philippe Demaerel, Patrick Flamen, Stefan Rutkowski, Eckhart Kaempgen, Johannes E. Wolff, Christian Plets, Raf Sciot and Stefaan W. Van Gool

: 2143–2152, 1997 3. Curiel TJ , Curiel DT : Tumor immunotherapy: inching toward the finish line. J Clin Invest 109 : 311 – 312 , 2002 Curiel TJ, Curiel DT: Tumor immunotherapy: inching toward the finish line. J Clin Invest 109: 311–312, 2002 4. Dhodapkar MV , Krasovsky J , Steinman RM , et al : Mature dendritic cells boost functionally superior CD8(+) T-cell in humans without foreign helper epitopes. J Clin Invest 105 : R9 – R14 , 2000 Dhodapkar MV, Krasovsky J, Steinman RM, et