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Marjorie C. Wang, Andrew M. Lozen, Purushottam W. Laud, Ann B. Nattinger, and Erin E. Krebs

related to chronic postoperative opioid use after cervical spine surgery, we studied opioid use, patient-reported outcomes, and patient satisfaction with pain relief before surgery and up to 1 year after surgery. We included patients undergoing elective cervical spine surgery for degenerative conditions causing radiculopathy and myelopathy. Based on literature for lumbar spine surgery and chronic opioid use, we hypothesized that patients who used opioids before surgery would be more likely to be using chronic opioids 1 year after surgery compared to those who did not

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Zachary G. Ries, Steven D. Glassman, Ivan Vasilyev, Leanne Metcalfe, and Leah Y. Carreon

L umbar degenerative disc disease (DDD) includes degenerative conditions of the lumbar spine, such as lumbar spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and degenerative disc pathologies. Associated changes include varying degrees of canal stenosis, endplate sclerosis, osteophyte formation, facet hypertrophy, disc degeneration, and ligamentum flavum thickening. 7 Symptoms can include back and leg pain, neurogenic claudication, numbness, weakness, and gait abnormalities. 3 , 7 , 12 Radiographic workup of the degenerative lumbar spine includes plain radiographs, MRI

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Chang-Hyun Lee, Chun Kee Chung, Jee-Soo Jang, Sung-Min Kim, Dong-Kyu Chin, Jung-Kil Lee, Seung Hwan Yoon, Jae Taek Hong, Yoon Ha, Chi Heon Kim, and Seung-Jae Hyun

L umbar lordosis (LL) is unique to the human spine; intact sagittal spinal alignment of the spine enables humans to walk upright with minimal effort. 38 Decreased LL and increased thoracolumbar and thoracic kyphosis (TK) are hallmarks of the aging human spine, and the prevalence of spinal deformity is increasing in the elderly population as people live longer. 16 , 43 Degenerative sagittal imbalance in the lumbar spine can refer to fixed sagittal imbalance, 7 , 8 lumbar degenerative kyphosis, 44 primary sagittal deformity, 47 or degenerative flat back. 28

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Takayoshi Shimizu, Shunsuke Fujibayashi, Bungo Otsuki, Koichi Murata, and Shuichi Matsuda

C onventional surgical treatment for symptomatic degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis includes direct posterior decompression with or without fusion and posterior/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. 7 , 8 , 19 In 1997, Mayer first described a lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas approach to the anterior disc space. 12 This approach, extreme lateral interbody fusion (LIF), was later modified and reported by Ozgur et al. 16 More recently, Silvestre et al. and some authors introduced the oblique psoas-sparing approach, which is an approach through the corridor

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Da Zou, Aikeremujiang Muheremu, Zhuoran Sun, Woquan Zhong, Shuai Jiang, and Weishi Li

W ith aging of the population, osteoporosis has gradually become a global health problem that affects 200 million people worldwide. 6 It has been estimated that there will be more than 400 million elderly people and 200 million osteoporotic patients in China by the year 2050. 4 , 13 An increasing number of elderly patients now need surgical treatment due to degenerative lumbar diseases such as degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis, degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis, and degenerative scoliosis. 5 Lumbar surgeries are performed 3 times more frequently in

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Kaisorn L. Chaichana, Mohamad Bydon, David R. Santiago-Dieppa, Lee Hwang, Gregory McLoughlin, Daniel M. Sciubba, Jean-Paul Wolinsky, Ali Bydon, Ziya L. Gokaslan, and Timothy Witham

, 46 These previous studies confound the true incidence of infections for posterior lumbar instrumented fusion because they include patients with different pathological entities such as tumors and trauma, 6 , 36 patients who underwent nonlumbar procedures, 22 , 34 and patients who did not undergo instrumented fusion. 12 , 30 Therefore, it is difficult to interpret the risk of spinal infection for patients who are undergoing posterior lumbar fusion for degenerative spine disease, which is the most common type of fusion procedure. 9 , 35 The goals of this study

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Victor E. Staartjes, Marlies P. de Wispelaere, and Marc L. Schröder

surgery. In particular, we are unaware of published ERAS evidence on anterior lumbar fusion procedures. Moreover, still little is known on the application of such protocols in specialized outpatient or short-stay settings. 24 , 25 This applies particularly to implementation of ERAS principles in a broad population of patients undergoing surgical procedures for degenerative spine conditions as seen clinically by neurosurgeons, as opposed to a group of patients all treated with the same single surgical procedure. Since the inception of the neurosurgical spine unit at

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Anna MacDowall, Martin Skeppholm, Lars Lindhagen, Yohan Robinson, Håkan Löfgren, Karl Michaëlsson, and Claes Olerud

C ervical radiculopathy is characterized by radiating pain from the neck to the shoulder or arm and is typically the consequence of degenerative changes such as disc herniation and osteophyte formation, with lower cervical segments most frequently affected. 10 When treatment with pain medication and physiotherapy has failed there are several surgical treatment options available, the most common being anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF). Artificial disc replacement (ADR) was invented to preserve motion at the index level, to prevent development of

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Anna MacDowall, Robert F. Heary, Marek Holy, Lars Lindhagen, and Claes Olerud

C ervical radiculopathy is characterized by radiating pain from the neck to the shoulder or arm. Radiculopathy is typically the consequence of degenerative disc changes such as disc herniations and/or osteophyte formations. The lower cervical segments are more frequently affected. 8 When treatment with medication, therapeutic injections, and physiotherapy has failed, there are several surgical treatment options available. The most common surgery for disc-induced radiculopathy is anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF). In the United States, more than

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Borys V. Gvozdyev, Leah Y. Carreon, Christopher M. Graves, Stephanie A. Riley, Katlyn E. McGraw, R. Joseph Head, John R. Dimar II, and Steven D. Glassman

P atient-reported outcome (PRO) measures are widely used to evaluate treatment outcomes following spine surgery for degenerative conditions. Consistent with an expanding patient-centered approach to care, PROs have in many ways replaced traditional outcome measures such as complication rates, physician assessments, and subjective patient satisfaction. 4 Two commonly used measures have demonstrated high validity combined with a reasonable response burden in evaluating patient-reported outcomes following spine surgery. 11 The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) 6