Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 797 items for :

Clear All
Restricted access

Martin Sánchez-Aguilar, J. Humberto Tapia-Pérez, José Juan Sánchez-Rodríguez, Juan Manuel Viñas-Ríos, Patricia Martínez-Pérez, Esperanza de la Cruz-Mendoza, Martin Sánchez-Reyna, Jaime Gerardo Torres-Corzo and Antonio Gordillo-Moscoso

it has both pro- and antiinflammatory effects. Interleukin-10 is generally considered an antiinflammatory cytokine. 10 , 14 In animals, simvastatin selectively reduces IL-1β expression, which seems to inhibit activation of microglial cells and astrocytes. 12 Based on these data, we designed a randomized placebo-controlled clinical investigation. The purpose of the study was to assess the systemic acute antiinflammatory effects of statins after TBI. We hypothesized that rosuvastatin would reduce or prevent the elevation of plasma levels of TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, and

Full access

Roberta P. Glick, Terry Lichtor and Edward P. Cohen

The prognosis for patients with either a primary or metastatic brain tumor is poor. Clearly new forms of therapy to improve the long-term survival of patients with malignant brain tumors are urgently needed. The authors are in the process of developing a new and novel form of treatment for primary and metastatic brain tumors in which they use genes involved in growth repression. In particular most tumors fail to induce an antitumor immune response strong enough to kill the tumor. Under appropriate circumstances, however, immunity can be produced in unique structures on the tumor cells known as antigens. To prepare the vaccine, genes are transferred into a fibroblast cell line that causes the cell to produce cytokines, the potent proteins known to stimulate the immune system. These cells are subsequently injected into the tumor bed, resulting in the development of an antitumor immune response. In experiments described in this manuscript, the authors have investigated a number of ways of augmenting the immune response by administering this type of cellular vaccine. They found that mice with a primary intracerebral glioma, melanoma, or breast cancer treated with this allogeneic cytokine-secreting vaccine survived significantly longer than untreated mice. Additionally the vaccine was found to stimulate a systemic antitumor immune response, as shown by immunocyto-toxic studies, histopathological examination, and delayed immune memory responses. In summary, these results indicate that immunogene therapy is a promising new targeted therapy for the treatment of intracerebral malignant tumors.

Restricted access

Piotr Jachimczak, Udo Schwulera and Ulrich Bogdahn

TGF- β mediates immunosuppression in vitro . 44 In addition, it has been demonstrated that glioblastoma cell lines secrete a number of immunostimulatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1 α and - β , 14, 15, 26, 28 IL-3-like factor, 18, 28 interferon (IFN), 27 tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- α , 2, 8, 26, 42 granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, 19 IL-6, 46 and IL-8. 45 The identification of these cytokines, which have multiple pleiotropic effects on immune and neoplastic cells, may have implications for tumor immunotherapy. 10 Two classes

Restricted access

Hirofumi Naganuma, Atsushi Sasaki, Hideaki Nukui and Kachio Tasaka

proliferation. 3, 10, 18, 29, 30, 33 We have shown that LAK cells secreted both TNF and LT in vitro , 19 and that this increased when LAK cells were cultured with nongliomatous tumor cells. Glioblastoma cells, however, failed to stimulate cytokine secretion. We suggested the possibility that glioblastoma cells produce factors that suppress cytokine secretion. Therefore, malignant glioma cells may affect the function, especially the cytokine secretion, of LAK cells. In this study, we investigated whether malignant glioma cells stimulate LAK-cell secretion of cytokines

Restricted access

Staffan Holmin, Martin Schalling, Bo Höjeberg, Ann-Christin Sandberg Nordqvist, Ann-Katrin Skeftruna and Tiit Mathiesen

mediators in brain injury. Experimental injuries caused an early production of cytokines. 18, 19, 24, 29, 72, 78 An increase of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor—α (TNFα) was also detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients treated for severe brain injuries. 42, 43, 59 Inflammation contributes to the injury in brain ischemia, 21, 57, 60, 61, 80 multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, 14, 36, 50, 55 and meningitis. 9, 22, 51, 56, 66 The effects of the inflammatory response following brain

Restricted access

John Schneider, Florence M. Hofman, Michael L. J. Apuzzo and David R. Hinton

mechanism for the necrosis characteristic of glioblastoma multiforme. 16, 36 Cytokines are important regulatory proteins controlling growth and differentiation, often in an autocrine or paracrine manner. 17 Originally thought to be derived solely from lymphocytes and macrophages, they have more recently been discovered to be produced by cells not traditionally part of the immune system, including astrocytes and microglial cells. 14, 24, 31 Cytokines have been identified and are thought to play a role in a variety of neurological diseases including infectious diseases

Restricted access

Terry Lichtor, Roberta P. Glick, Tae Sung Kim, Roger Hand and Edward P. Cohen

T he prognosis for patients with primary malignant glioma remains poor, in spite of a variety of different forms of treatment. Surgery, irradiation, and chemotherapeutic treatments rarely succeed in curing the disease. An emerging strategy in the treatment of various neoplasms involves the stimulation of an immune response against the malignant cells. Cytokines such as interleukin-2 (IL-2) or interferon-γ (IFN-γ) have been used in both experimental animals and patients to treat malignant disease with inconsistent success. Interleukin-2 has no direct toxic

Restricted access

Keith L. Black, K. Chen, Donald P. Becker and Jean E. Merrill

cytokines may also act as paracrine angiogenic factors to induce neovascularization into the tumor bed. 20 Gliomas have been shown to produce transforming growth factor (TGF)-β in vitro and in vivo . 7, 42 Transforming growth factor-β is a potent macrophage deactivator 50 and T-cell suppressor. 28, 47 It inhibits the generation of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells. 13 Nevertheless, glioblastoma cells, unlike inflammatory cells, are refractory to the growth inhibitory effects of TGF-β. 23 In this study, glioblastomas from four patients were extensively

Restricted access

Luca Denaro, Federico Di Rocco, Marco Gessi, Libero Lauriola, Liverana Lauretti, Roberto Pallini, Eduardo Fernandez and Giulio Maira

syndrome of unknown origin. After numerous examinations conducted at another institution, MR imaging revealed a right temporal mass. Excision of the mass, a chordoid meningioma, was followed by immediate resolution of the fever. Considering that in a child with a rhabdoid atypical meningioma with similar clinical presentation and response to tumor excision, the systemic manifestations were related to tumor-produced pyrogenic cytokines IL-6 and TNFα, 16 we searched for the expression of these cytokines in the tumor samples obtained in our patient. Only expression of the

Restricted access

Cormac O. Maher, Robert E. Anderson, Heidi S. Martin, Robyn L. McClelland and Fredric B. Meyer

I nterleukin -1β is a proinflammatory cytokine 19, 20, 48, 49, 62, 63 that is produced in the brain in response to pathological stressors such as stroke, trauma, infection, and SAH. 6, 27, 32, 46, 54, 57, 65 In many cases, this response is delayed. For example, Legos and colleagues 27 demonstrated in the rat that an increase in IL-1β expression peaked approximately 3 days after focal ischemia. Several investigators have reported that the short-term effect of central administration of IL-1β is vasodilation with an increase in CBF. 3, 22, 35, 40, 51 Monroy