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Sarah Nguyen, Kyril L. Cole, Kathleen H. Timme, and Randy L. Jensen

published curricula . Am J Surg . 2019 ; 217 ( 2 ): 209 – 213 . 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2018.09.003 30276032 5 Thomas P , Kern D , Hughes M , Chen B . Curriculum Development for Medical Education . 3rd ed . Johns Hopkins University Press ; 2016 . 6 Ericsson KA . Deliberate practice and the acquisition and maintenance of expert performance in medicine and related domains . Acad Med . 2004 ; 79 ( 10 suppl ): S70 – S81 . 10.1097/00001888-200410001-00022 7 Copeland HL , Hewson MG . Developing and testing an instrument to measure the effectiveness

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D. Ryan Ormond, Joseph Kahamba, Kevin O. Lillehei, and Nicephorus Rutabasibwa

Tanzania sits on the Indian Ocean in East Africa and has a population of over 53 million people. While the gross domestic product has been increasing in recent years, distribution of wealth remains a problem, and challenges in the distribution of health services abound. Neurosurgery is a unique case study of this problem. The challenges facing the development of neurosurgery in Tanzania are many and varied, built largely out of the special needs of modern neurosurgery. Task shifting (training nonphysician surgical providers) and 2-tiered systems (fast-track certification of general surgeons to perform basic neurosurgical procedures) may serve some of the immediate need, but these options will not sustain the development of a comprehensive neurosurgical footprint. Ultimately, long-term solutions to the need for neurosurgical care in Tanzania can only be fulfilled by local government investment in capacity building (infrastructure and neurosurgical training), and the commitment of Tanzanians trained in neurosurgery. With this task in mind, Tanzania developed an independent neurosurgery training program in Dar es Salaam. While significant progress has been made, a number of training deficiencies remain. To address these deficiencies, the Muhimbili Orthopedic Institute (MOI) Division of Neurosurgery and the University of Colorado School of Medicine Department of Neurosurgery set up a Memorandum of Understanding in 2016. This relationship was developed with the perspective of a “collaboration of equals.” Through this collaboration, faculty members and trainees from both institutions have the opportunity to participate in international exchange, join in collaborative research, experience the culture and friendship of a new country, and share scholarship through presentations and teaching. Ultimately, through this international partnership, mutual improvement in the care of the neurosurgical patient will develop, bringing programs like MOI out of isolation and obscurity. From Dar es Salaam, a center of excellence is developing to train neurosurgeons who can go well equipped throughout Tanzania to improve the care of the neurosurgical patient everywhere. The authors encourage further such exchanges to be developed between partnership training programs throughout the world, improving the scholarship, subspecialization, and teaching expertise of partner programs throughout the world.

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Sergio A. Calero-Martinez, Christian Matula, Aurelia Peraud, Francesco Biroli, José Fernández-Alén, Michael Bierschneider, Michael Cunningham, Gregory W. J. Hawryluk, Maya Babu, M. Ross Bullock, and Andrés M. Rubiano

evaluation process for identifying needs and to track progress. After this initial step, further development was completed and 4 additional academic neurosurgeons from different regions of the world (Colombia, Canada, US, and Australia), supported by a curriculum development specialist (medical educator) and a project manager. On the date of submission of this article, a total of 9 neurosurgeons were involved. Curriculum Committee The course curriculum committee was responsible for developing and editing all content (cases), assessment question writing, video recording

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Jessica E. Rabski, Ashirbani Saha, Michael D. Cusimano, and FRCSC DABNS

for mastery . UCLA Evaluation Comment-CSEIP . 1968 ; 1 ( 2 ). 2 McGaghie WC , Miller GE , Sajid AW , Telder TW . Competency-Based Curriculum Development in Medical Education . World Health Organization ; 1978 . Accessed August 24, 2020 . 3 Carraccio C , Englander R , Van Melle E , Advancing competency-based medical education: a charter for

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Matthew A. Kirkman, Maria Ahmed, Angelique F. Albert, Mark H. Wilson, Dipankar Nandi, and Nick Sevdalis

-Based Education/ or Education/ or Education, Medical Graduate/ or clinical education/ or postgraduate education/ or residency education/ or education program/ or educational model/ or skill/ or skill retention/ or curriculum development/ or motor performance/or Medical Education/ or Curriculum Based Assessment/ or Curriculum Development/ or Motor Performance/ or Professional Competence/ or Competence/ 3,716,976 3 ‘neurosurg*'.mp or ‘neuro-surg*'.mp or MeSH/subject heading: Neurosurgery/ 240,023 4 1 and 2 and 3 4101 † The search strategy of this

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Samantha E. Hoffman, Rafael A. Vega, and Martina Stippler

Neurosurgery. Here, we present a virtual subinternship (Virtual Sub-I) toolbox, describing the materials and methodologies used to construct our weeklong program. We also report students’ experiences with the Virtual Sub-I, which demonstrate the efficacy and utility of our program. Methods Curriculum Development The overarching objective of our Virtual Sub-I was to recreate essential components of the traditional subinternship experience. First, to arm students with neurosurgical knowledge that would prepare them for internship, we designed a case

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Aingaya J. Kaale, Nicephorus Rutabasibwa, Laurent Lemeri Mchome, Kevin O. Lillehei, Justin M. Honce, Joseph Kahamba, and D. Ryan Ormond

, Fahlbusch R : Quantification of, visualization of, and compensation for brain shift using intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging . Neurosurgery 47 : 1070 – 1080 , 2000 11063099 10.1097/00006123-200011000-00008 20 Ormond DRKJ , Kahamba J , Lillehei KO , Rutabasibwa N : Overcoming barriers to neurosurgical training in Tanzania: international exchange, curriculum development, and novel methods of resource utilization and subspecialty development . Neurosurg Focus 45 ( 4 ): E6 , 2018 10.3171/2018.7.FOCUS18239 30269594 21 Pasto ME , Rifkin MD

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Faizal A. Haji, Adam Dubrowski, James Drake, and Sandrine de Ribaupierre

be beneficial in ongoing assessment of competence, as a quality assurance measure. Although many additional elements including demonstration of validity and reliability of rating scales, development and validation of appropriate simulation scenarios, and evidence that these assessments reflect performance in practice will be required prior to their clinical use, these data provide an important initial step toward this goal. The ranking of simulation modules was included in the study largely to provide a road map for those engaging in SBME curriculum development

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Alvan-Emeka K. Ukachukwu, Megan E. H. Still, Andreas Seas, Megan von Isenburg, Graham Fieggen, Adefolarin O. Malomo, Matthew T. Shokunbi, Joseph R. Egger, Michael M. Haglund, and Anthony T. Fuller

Africa: the Neurosurgery Education and Development model . Neurosurg Focus . 2018 ; 45 ( 4 ): E8 . 10.3171/2018.7.FOCUS18287 63 Ormond DR , Kahamba J , Lillehei KO , Rutabasibwa N . Overcoming barriers to neurosurgical training in Tanzania: international exchange, curriculum development, and novel methods of resource utilization and subspecialty development . Neurosurg Focus . 2018 ; 45 ( 4 ): E6 . 10.3171/2018.7.FOCUS18239 64 Uche EO , Mezue WC , Ajuzieogu O , Improving capacity and access to neurosurgery in sub-Saharan Africa using a