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Demitre Serletis and T. Glenn Pait

important to acknowledge the pioneers of this pre-imaging epoch and appreciate the creativity and ingenuity used to solve the challenge of reproducibly and reliably accessing a specific target in the brain. In this context, we present a comprehensive and systematic review of the most popular craniometric tools developed prior to the advent of modern-day stereotactic techniques for the purposes of craniocerebral measurement and target localization. Early Anthropological Techniques Physical anthropology aims to study the anatomical and physiological variations of the

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Florian H. Ebner, Verena Kürschner, Klaus Dietz, Eva Bültmann, Thomas Nägele and Juergen Honegger

P atients with acromegaly are recognizable by the pathognomonic phenotype of somatic overgrowth and craniofacial disproportions. Excessive IGF-I levels cause a periosteal new bone formation resulting in characteristic nasal bone hypertrophy, mandibular overgrowth, maxillary widening, and frontal bossing. Craniometric changes have been analyzed in the literature. 3 , 5 , 7 Recently our group reported on a reduced intercarotid artery distance (distance between left and right carotid arteries) in acromegaly. 4 The vast majority of these patients harbors a

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Todd C. Hankinson, Elizabeth J. Fontana, Richard C. E. Anderson and Neil A. Feldstein

underlying primary process. Craniometrics for the SSC Population As previously stated, the ability of surgical intervention to correct the morphological disturbance associated with SSC is well established. Direct anthropometric techniques, such as calculation of the cranial index ([maximum cranial width/maximum cranial length] × 100) have been the most commonly employed methods of quantitatively assessing results. These methods are objective, reproducible and avoid the use of ionizing radiation. Additionally, the existence of normative databases allows comparison of

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Thomas Frigeri, Eliseu Paglioli, Evandro de Oliveira and Albert L. Rhoton Jr.

T he central lobe, composed of the pre- and postcentral gyri and the paracentral lobule is one of the most eloquent areas of the brain, and it corresponds to the sensorimotor cortex. This morphological unit, together with the functional interaction between motricity and sensitivity, justifies the characterization of these gyri as a single lobe. 45 There have been several studies of gyral and sulcal anatomy, craniometrics, and vascular features that included this area. 1 , 4 , 10 , 11 , 17 , 19 , 21–24 , 28 , 36 , 39–41 , 43–46 , 51 , 54 , 56 , 57

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Anil K. Roy, , Brandon A. Miller, Christopher M. Holland, Arthur J. Fountain Jr., Gustavo Pradilla and Faiz U. Ahmad

surgical intervention. Conversely, patients with unstable CVJ injuries requiring surgery may not necessarily have fractures. Therefore, determining the integrity of ligamentous structures of the CVJ is paramount in deciding whether surgical stabilization is necessary. 11 Prior to the widespread use of MRI in the evaluation of spinal trauma, methods to determine CVJ instability were based on bony measurements. 6 , 28 , 29 , 31 , 36 , 37 While these methods, referred to as craniometrics, are useful, MRI is playing an ever greater role in CVJ trauma, and its use continues

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Ulysses C. Batista, Andrei F. Joaquim, Yvens B. Fernandes, Roger N. Mathias, Enrico Ghizoni and Helder Tedeschi

T he majority of the articles related to spinal alignment evaluate the center of gravity of the sagittal vertical axis, pelvic incidence, cervical and lumbar lordosis, and thoracic kyphosis. 7 , 18 , 23 However, the parameters of the normal craniometric relationships of the craniocervical junction (CCJ), especially those for angular craniometry, are still poorly studied and historically based on measurements taken from plain radiographs. 17 If compared with plain radiographs, where bone structures are superimposed, the use of modern diagnostic imaging

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Simel Kendir, Halil Ibrahim Acar, Ayhan Comert, Mevci Ozdemir, Gokmen Kahilogullari, Alaittin Elhan and Hasan Caglar Ugur

gyri with the guidance of the craniometrical points and sutures. Methods Ten formalin-fixed adult skulls were obtained. Skulls with the signs of CNS trauma or disease were excluded. The scalp and cranial muscles were removed. The cranial sutures, lines, and craniometrical points were protected, and all the remaining bone tissues were removed with the aid of a high-speed drill (Midas Rex Legend Gold Touch) ( Fig. 1 ). The arachnoid granulations and branches of middle meningeal artery on the dura mater were observed ( Fig. 2 ). Then, the dura mater was removed

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Rajiv R. Iyer, Carolyn M. Carey, S. Alex Rottgers, Lisa Tetreault, Nir Shimony, Jennifer Katzenstein, Ernesto Ruas and Gerald F. Tuite

the use of programmable shunt valves. Surviving patients returned for imaging, professional photography of their head shape, completion of family outcomes questionnaires to assess developmental progress and perceptions of esthetic outcome, and standard head anthropometric measurements. Patient demographics, head growth charts, clinical images, and operative reports were collected and reviewed. Calvarial volumes before and immediately after CVRF were calculated using volumetric software based on CT or MRI studies (BrainLab). Craniometric measurements were performed

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Arnau Benet, Halima Tabani, Xinmin Ding, Jan-Karl Burkhardt, Roberto Rodriguez Rubio, Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Peyton Nisson, Olivia Kola, Sirin Gandhi, Sonia Yousef and Michael T. Lawton

is still lacking. In this cadaveric surgical simulation study, we propose a novel technique for harvesting the OA via an anterograde (from proximal to distal) approach performed using a myocutaneous flap. Our objective was to describe the approach in a stepwise manner and define key landmarks to safely and efficiently harvest the OA by using the proposed technique. Methods Craniometric Study Thirty-five dry skulls were assessed bilaterally (n = 70) to study the bony landmarks that can be used to identify and locate the proximal segment of the OA. The occipital

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Michael C. Dewan, Jaims Lim, Stephen R. Gannon, David Heaner, Matthew C. Davis, Brandy Vaughn, Joshua J. Chern, Brandon G. Rocque, Paul Klimo Jr., John C. Wellons III and Robert P. Naftel

makes postoperative clinical decision making challenging. By assigning expected norms following ETV/CPC to the infant patient (particularly in direct relation to VPS norms), surgeons may more objectively and more certainly judge treatment success, and advise patients and their families accordingly. Establishing these craniometric differences between ETV/CPC and VPS treatment in infants corroborates data from previous studies on children treated via ETV alone. Nearly 2 decades prior, the modest influence of ETV alone on ventricle size was well documented. 5 , 12