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Johan Michiels, Hilde Bosmans, Bart Nuttin, Michael Knauth, Rudi Verbeeck, Dirk Vandermeulen, Guy Wilms, Guy Marchal, Paul Suetens and Jan Gybels

for stereotactic surgery. Radiology 175 : 435 – 441 , 1990 Zhang J, Levesque MF, Wilson CL, et al: Multimodality imaging of brain structures for stereotactic surgery. Radiology 175: 435–441, 1990 This study is part of COVIRA (Computer Vision in Radiology), Project A2003 of the AIM (Advanced Informatics in Medicine) programme of the European Commission (1992–1994).

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Klaus Niemann, Roland van den Boom, Katja Haeselbarth and Farhad Afshar

. Radiology 179 : 319 – 332 , 1991 Bradley WG Jr: MR of the brain stem: a practical approach. Radiology 179: 319–332, 1991 19. Cootes TF , Taylor CJ : Locating objects of varying shape using statistical feature detectors , in Buxton B , Cipolla R (eds): Computer Vision—ECCV '96. Berlin : Springer-Verlag , 1996 , Vol 2 , pp 465 – 474 Cootes TF, Taylor CJ: Locating objects of varying shape using statistical feature detectors, in Buxton B, Cipolla R (eds): Computer Vision—ECCV '96. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1996, Vol 2, pp 465–474 20. Corrales M

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Derek L. G. Hill, Andrew D. Castellano Smith, Andrew Simmons, Calvin R. Maurer Jr., Timothy C. S. Cox, Robert Elwes, Michael Brammer, David J. Hawkes and Charles E. Polkey

device , in Troccaz J , Grimson WEL , Mösges R (eds): CVRMed-MRCAS ‘97: First Joint Conference Computer Vision, Virtual Reality, and Robotics in Medicine and Medical Robotics and Computer-Assisted Surgery. Berlin : Springer-Verlag , 1997 , pp 459 – 466 Bucholz RD, Yeh DD, Trobaugh J, et al: The correction of stereotactic inaccuracy caused by brain shift using an intraoperative ultrasound device, in Troccaz J, Grimson WEL, Mösges R (eds): CVRMed-MRCAS ‘97: First Joint Conference Computer Vision, Virtual Reality, and Robotics in Medicine and Medical

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Yin C. Hu, Vivek R. Deshmukh, Felipe C. Albuquerque, David Fiorella, Randal R. Nixon, Donald V. Heck, Stanley L. Barnwell and Cameron G. McDougall

Dr. Fiorella is a consultant for and receives royalties from Codman & Shurtleff, is a consultant for Covidien, receives institutional research support from MicroVention, Inc. and Siemens Medical Imaging, is a stockholder in Computer Vision System Laboratories, and is a stockholder in Vascular Simulations. Dr. Barnwell is a proctor for Covidien and a primary investigator for SURPASS with Stryker. Dr. McDougall is on the medical advisory board of and is a proctor for Covidien and is a consultant for MicroVention, Inc. The other authors report no conflicts of interest

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Kay Niklas Liebig, Homajoun Maslehaty, Athanasios K. Petridis, Wolfgang Konen and Martin Scholz

and Electronic Engineers 1999 4 : 133 – 137 19 Liu CY , Wang MY , Apuzzo ML : The physics of image formation in the neuroendoscope . Childs Nerv Syst 20 : 777 – 782 , 2004 20 Loewke K , Camarillo D , Piyawattanametha W , Mandela MJ , Contag CH , Thrun S , : In vivo micro-image mosaicing . IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 58 : 159 – 171 , 2011 21 Loewke K , Camarillo D , Salisbury K , Thrun S : Deformable image mosaicing for optical biopsy, in 2007 IEEE 11th International Conference on Computer Vision, Rio de Janeiro, 2007

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David J. Schlesinger, Håkan Nordström, Anders Lundin, Zhiyuan Xu and Jason P. Sheehan

. Fifth International Conference on Computer Vision New York , IEEE , 1995 . 852 – 857 52 Terada T , Nakamura Y , Nakai K , Tsuura M , Nishiguchi T , Hayashi S , : Embolization of arteriovenous malformations with peripheral aneurysms using ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer. Report of three cases . J Neurosurg 75 : 655 – 660 , 1991 53 van Rooij WJ , Sluzewski M , Beute GN : Brain AVM embolization with Onyx . AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 28 : 172 – 178 , 2007 54 Wallace RC , Flom RA , Khayata MH , Dean BL , McKenzie J , Rand

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Raphael Meier, Nicole Porz, Urspeter Knecht, Tina Loosli, Philippe Schucht, Jürgen Beck, Johannes Slotboom, Roland Wiest and Mauricio Reyes

: Decision Forests for Computer Vision and Medical Image Analysis London , Springer , 2013 . 25 – 45 10.1007/978-1-4471-4929-3_4 14 Deeley MA , Chen A , Datteri R , Noble JH , Cmelak AJ , Donnelly EF , : Comparison of manual and automatic segmentation methods for brain structures in the presence of space-occupying lesions: a multi-expert study . Phys Med Biol 56 : 4557 – 4577 , 2011 21725140 10.1088/0031-9155/56/14/021 15 Gállego Pérez-Larraya J , Lahutte M , Petrirena G , Reyes-Botero G , González-Aguilar A , Houillier C

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Eva L. Leemans, Bart M. W. Cornelissen, Miran Said, René van den Berg, Cornelis H. Slump, Henk A. Marquering and Charles B. L. M. Majoie

: influence of size and morphology . J Magn Reson Imaging 39 : 120 – 131 , 2014 10.1002/jmri.24110 24151067 33 Taubin G : Curve and surface smoothing without shrinkage, in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision . Los Alamitos, CA : IEEE Computer Society Press , 1995 , pp 852 – 857 , 1995 ( https://graphics.stanford.edu/courses/cs468-01-fall/Papers/taubin-smoothing.pdf ) [Accessed May 9, 2019] 34 Thompson BG , Brown RD Jr , Amin-Hanjani S , Broderick JP , Cockroft KM , Connolly ES Jr , : Guidelines for the

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Kevin T. Huang, Michael A. Silva, Alfred P. See, Kyle C. Wu, Troy Gallerani, Hasan A. Zaidi, Yi Lu, John H. Chi, Michael W. Groff and Omar M. Arnaout

T he role of machine learning and artificial intelligence in medicine has grown dramatically in recent years. Some of the most promising applications of machine learning in medicine have been in the area of computer vision, whereby computer algorithms are trained to aid in medical image analysis. 10 , 11 , 16 Unlike traditional image processing techniques, which may enhance images but still rely on humans to analyze and interpret them, computer vision algorithms attempt to independently assign meaning to the images. Such algorithms have shown not only to