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James W. Watts and Walter Freeman

cognition,’ that is to say, it is applied to any of the numerous processes by which knowledge is built up. Sometimes it is restricted to the conceptual process, as distinct from the process of sense perception. Some (psychologists) frankly admit that they do not know and do not care what this ‘intelligence’ may be which they are measuring, so long as these measurements can be made use of. Lastly, ordinary everyday usage perhaps tends to emphasize the practical character of intelligence as consisting in the ability to employ the right means in order to achieve the various

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K. Samra, I. S. Cooper, M. Riklan, J. Waltz, E. Levita and M. Yaghmai

fluency in cognition, level of perceptual functions, activation or energy level, and emotional as well as personality status. On the basis of this initial psychological interview, each patient was rated on a 3-point scale as a good, fair, or poor candidate for surgery. Preoperative Status Variables pertinent to the preoperative status of both groups are shown in Table 1 . With the possible exception of male preponderance in Group A, the preoperative clinical characteristics of the two groups are very similar and comparable. It should be added that 95% of the

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Donald F. Pochyly

manually. Power tools were felt to require greater precision and skill because of their speed. Finally, the use of remodeling tools was identified as being the most complex because the use of both hands was required, necessitating greater coordination. The use of implants was also subdivided into simple implants such as a screw and complex implants such as a bone plate. Three areas were identified which provided observable behavior suitable for evaluation of each skill. These were cognition, contiguity, and feedback. The area of cognition refers to the demonstrated

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Arden F. Reynolds Jr., A. Basil Harris, George A. Ojemann and Paul T. Turner

thalamotomy. Brain 91: 619–638, 1968 2. Benson DR , Sheremata WA , Bouchard R , et al : Conduction aphasia. A clinicopathological study. Arch Neurol 28 : 339 – 346 , 1973 Benson DR, Sheremata WA, Bouchard R, et al: Conduction aphasia. A clinicopathological study. Arch Neurol 28: 339–346, 1973 3. Brown JW : Language, cognition and the thalamus. Confin Neurol 36 : 33 – 60 , 1974 Brown JW: Language, cognition and the thalamus. Confin Neurol 36: 33–60, 1974 4. Bugiani O

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Prolonged posttraumatic unconsciousness

Therapeutic assets and liabilities

Albino Bricolo, Sergio Turazzi and Giannantonio Feriotti

J , Fau R : Coma traumatique exceptionnellement prolongé. Trépanation ou troisième mois. Guérison avec un minimum de séquelles. Med Acad Chir 82 : 39 – 42 , 1956 Reymond J, Fau R: Coma traumatique exceptionnellement prolongé. Trépanation ou troisième mois. Guérison avec un minimum de séquelles. Med Acad Chir 82: 39–42, 1956 46. Rosenberg GA , Johnson SF , Brenner RP : Recovery of cognition after prolonged vegetative state. Ann Neurol 2 : 167 – 168 , 1977 Rosenberg GA, Johnson SF, Brenner

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Richard P. Greenberg and Thomas B. Ducker

. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 45 : 331 – 340 , 1978 Dimitrijevic MR, Larsson LE, Lehmkuhl D, et al: Evoked spinal cord and nerve root potentials in humans using a non-invasive recording technique. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 45: 331–340, 1978 34. Donchin E : On evoked potentials, cognition, and memory. Science 190 : 1004 – 1005 , 1975 Donchin E: On evoked potentials, cognition, and memory. Science 190: 1004–1005, 1975 35. Donchin E , Callaway E , Cooper R , et al : Publication

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Franklin C. Wagner Jr. and Bahram Chehrazi

percentage of their neurological deficit than would have been anticipated on the basis of their admission scores. As Maynard, et al. , 17 pointed out, impaired cognition probably resulted in these patients being given falsely low admission scores. One of these patients had an accompanying head injury with a decreased level of consciousness, and the other two were intoxicated. In contrast, three patients did not recover to the extent that would have been expected. In two patients, there was radiological evidence of preexisting spondylosis. There was no immediate

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Jacquelin Perry

surgeons is to plan the patient's care so mobilization is both safe and possible. 12, 136 Comprehensive Rehabilitation The demands of daily living involve 10 basic tasks: locomotion, object handling, self-care, bowel and bladder continence, cognition, communication, social adjustment, psychological stability, recreation, and employment. Each must be accomplished in a manner that leaves adequate energy for the others, yet any or all may be disrupted by a neurological lesion. Objectives and Program Planning . Recovering the patient's optimum effectiveness in each

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Immunobiology of primary intracranial tumors

Part 10: Therapeutic efficacy of interferon in the treatment of recurrent gliomas

M. Stephen Mahaley Jr., Mary B. Urso, Robert A. Whaley, Maxine Blue, Thomas E. Williams, Alfred Guaspari and Robert G. Selker

neurotoxicity necessitated delay in treatment for a few days in three patients, the symptoms always improved or cleared totally after therapy was completed. The etiology and mechanism(s) of this neurotoxicity are unclear. In a prospective neuropsychiatric study before and after treatment with HuIFN- α Leu (3 × 10 6 U/day intramuscularly) in 10 patients with renal cell carcinoma without brain metastases, Adams, et al. , 1 reported moderately severe behavioral changes and slight to moderate changes in cognition, affect, and personality in most patients. These abnormalities

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James P. McAllister II, Todd A. Maugans, Mitseh V. Shah and Raymond C. Truex Jr.

cognition is generally considered a result of damage to the cerebral cortex, attempts to correlate cortical mantle thickness with intellectual capacity have been inconclusive. 60 This suggests that damage is occurring at the cellular level and therefore cannot be evaluated macroscopically. The literature is replete with micropathological studies of hydrocephalus. Human cortical biopsies and necropsy material have been examined. 1, 2, 51, 54, 55 Experimental models have also been designed, generally involving the use of inert substances such as kaolin or Silastic to