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Scott L. Parker, William N. Anderson, Sean Lilienfeld, J. Thomas Megerian and Matthew J. McGirt

Object

Cerebrospinal fluid shunt infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the treatment of adult and pediatric hydrocephalus. Antibiotic-impregnated shunt (AIS) catheters have been used with the aim of reducing shunt infection. While many studies have demonstrated a reduction in shunt infection with AIS, this reported efficacy has varied within the literature.

Methods

The authors performed a systematic literature review to identify all published articles comparing the incidence of CSF shunt infection in AIS versus non-AIS catheters. The incidence of infection for AIS versus non-AIS catheters was calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel common odds ratio, and baseline demographics were compared between AIS and non-AIS cohorts.

Results

Twelve AIS versus non-AIS cohort comparisons were identified in the literature (5 pediatric hydrocephalus, 3 adult hydrocephalus, and 4 mixed populations). In a total of 5613 reported shunt procedures (2664 AISs vs 2949 non-AISs), AISs were associated with a reduction in shunt infection (3.3% vs 7.2%; OR 0.439, p < 0.0001). In 787 shunt procedures for adult hydrocephalus (427 AIS vs 360 non-AIS), AISs were associated with reduction in shunt infection (0.9% vs 5.8%; OR 0.153, p < 0.0001). In 1649 shunt procedures for pediatric hydrocephalus (854 AIS vs 795 non-AIS), AISs were associated with reduction in shunt infection (5.0% vs 11.2%; OR 0.421, p < 0.0001).

Conclusions

The authors' systematic review of the literature demonstrates that AIS catheters are associated with a significant reduction over non-AIS catheters in the reported incidence of CSF shunt infection in adult and pediatric populations. The AIS catheters do not appear to be associated with an increased incidence of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. Prospective, randomized trials are needed to firmly assess and confirm this apparent difference in infection incidence.

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Sagun Tuli, James Drake, Jerry Lawless, Melanie Wigg and Maria Lamberti-Pasculli

Repeated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt failures in pediatric patients who have undergone neurosurgical procedures are common, and they are a significant cause of morbidity and occasionally mortality. To date, the risk factors for repeated failure have not been established. By performing survival analysis for repeated events, the authors examined the effects of patient characteristics, shunt hardware, and surgical details in a large cohort of patients.

During a 10-year period all pediatric patients with hydrocephalus requiring CSF diversionary procedures were included in a prospective single-institution observational study. Patient characteristics were defined as age, gender, weight, head circumference; American Society of Anesthesiology class, and the cause of hydrocephalus. Surgical details included whether the procedure was performed on an emergency or nonemergency basis, use of antibiotics, concurrent other surgical procedures, and the duration of surgical procedure. Details on shunt hardware included the type of shunt, the valve system, whether the shunt system included multiple or complex components, the type of distal catheter, site of the shunt, and side on which the shunt was placed.

Repeated shunt failures were assessed with multivariable time-to-event analysis (using the Cox regression model). Conditional models (as established by Prentice, et al.) were formulated for gap times (that is, times between successive shunt failures).

There were 1183 shunt failures in 839 patients. Failure time from the first shunt procedure was an important predictor for the second and third episodes of failures, thus establishing an association between the times to failure within individual patients. Age of less than 40 weeks gestation at time of the first shunt implantion carried a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.49 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.68-3.68) for the first failure and remained high for subsequent episodes of failure. Age of 40 weeks to 1 year (at the time of the initial surgery) also proved to be an important predictor of first shunt malfunctions (HR 1.77, 95% CI 1.29-2.44). The cause of hydrocephalus was significantly associated with the risk of initial failure and, to a lesser extent, later failures. Concurrent other surgical procedures were associated with an increased risk of failure.

The patient's age at the time of initial shunt placement and the time interval since previous surgical revision are important predictors of repeated shunt failures in the multivariable model. Even after adjusting for age at first shunt insertion as well as the cause of hydrocephalus there is significant association between repeated failure times for individual patients.

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Sagun Tuli, James Drake, Jerry Lawless, Melanie Wigg and Maria Lamberti-Pasculli

Object. Repeated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt failures in pediatric patients are common, and they are a significant cause of morbidity and, occasionally, of death. To date, the risk factors for repeated failure have not been established. By performing survival analysis for repeated events, the authors examined the effects of patient characteristics, shunt hardware, and surgical details in a large cohort of patients.

Methods. During a 10-year period all pediatric patients with hydrocephalus requiring CSF diversion procedures were included in a prospective single-institution observational study. Patient characteristics were defined as age, gender, weight, head circumference, American Society of Anesthesiology class, and cause of hydrocephalus. Surgical details included whether the procedure was performed on an emergency or nonemergency basis, use of antibiotic agents, concurrent surgical procedures, and duration of the surgical procedure. Details on shunt hardware included: the type of shunt, the valve system, whether the shunt system included multiple or complex components, the type of distal catheter, the site of the shunt, and the side on which the shunt was placed.

Repeated shunt failures were assessed using multivariable time-to-event analysis (by using the Cox regression model). Conditional models (as established by Prentice, et al.) were formulated for gap times (that is, times between successive shunt failures).

There were 1183 shunt failures in 839 patients. Failure time from the first shunt procedure was an important predictor for the second and third episodes of failure, thus establishing an association between the times to failure within individual patients. An age younger than 40 weeks gestation at the time of the first shunt implantion carried a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.49 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.68–3.68) for the first failure, which remained high for subsequent episodes of failure. An age from 40 weeks gestation to 1 year (at the time of the initial surgery) also proved to be an important predictor of first shunt malfunctions (HR 1.77, 95% CI 1.29–2.44). The cause of hydrocephalus was significantly associated with the risk of initial failure and, to a lesser extent, later failures. Concurrent other surgical procedures were associated with an increased risk of failure.

Conclusions. The patient's age at the time of initial shunt placement and the time interval since previous surgical revision are important predictors of repeated shunt failures in the multivariable model. Even after adjusting for age at first shunt insertion as well as the cause of hydrocephalus, there is significant association between repeated failure times for individual patients.

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Athanasios A. Konstantelias, Konstantinos Z. Vardakas, Konstantinos A. Polyzos, Giannoula S. Tansarli and Matthew E. Falagas

ventriculoperitoneal shunt procedure . J Korean Neurosurg Soc 48 : 325 – 329 , 2010 33 Parker SL , Anderson WN , Lilienfeld S , Megerian JT , Mc-Girt MJ : Cerebrospinal shunt infection in patients receiving antibiotic-impregnated versus standard shunts . J Neurosurg Pediatr 8 : 259 – 265 , 2011 34 Parker SL , Attenello FJ , Sciubba DM , Garces-Ambrossi GL , Ahn E , Weingart J , : Comparison of shunt infection incidence in high-risk subgroups receiving antibiotic-impregnated versus standard shunts . Childs Nerv Syst 25 : 77 – 85

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Johan Gasslander, Nina Sundström, Anders Eklund, Lars-Owe D. Koskinen and Jan Malm

OBJECTIVE

Subdural hematomas and hygromas (SDHs) are common complications in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) patients with shunts. In this registry-based study, patients with shunted iNPH were screened nationwide to identify perioperative variables that may increase the risk of SDH.

METHODS

The Swedish Hydrocephalus Quality Registry was reviewed for iNPH patients who had undergone shunt surgery in Sweden in 2004–2014. Potential risk factors for SDH were recorded preoperatively and 3 months after surgery. Drug prescriptions were identified from a national pharmacy database. Patients who developed SDHs were compared with those without SDHs.

RESULTS

The study population consisted of 1457 patients, 152 (10.4%) of whom developed an SDH. Men developed an SDH more often than women (OR 2.084, 95% CI 1.421–3.058, p < 0.001). Patients on platelet aggregation inhibitors developed an SDH more often than those who were not (OR 1.733, 95% CI 1.236–2.431, p = 0.001). At surgery, shunt opening pressures had been set 5.9 mm H2O lower in the SDH group than in the no-SDH group (109.6 ± 24.1 vs 115.5 ± 25.4 mm H2O, respectively, p = 0.009). Antisiphoning devices (ASDs) were used in 892 patients but did not prevent SDH. Mean opening pressures at surgery and the follow-up were lower with shunts with an ASD, without causing more SDHs. No other differences were seen between the groups.

CONCLUSIONS

iNPH patients in this study were diagnosed and operated on in routine practice; thus, the results represent everyday care. Male sex, antiplatelet medication, and a lower opening pressure at surgery were risk factors for SDH. Physical status and comorbidity were not. ASD did not prevent SDH, but a shunt with an ASD allowed a lower opening pressure without causing more SDHs.

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: Testing cerebrospinal fluid shunt function: a noninvasive technique. Neurosurgery 6 : 649 – 651 , 1980 Stein SC: Testing cerebrospinal fluid shunt function: a noninvasive technique. Neurosurgery 6: 649–651, 1980 5. Stein SC , Shucart WA : Noninvasive test of cerebrospinal shunt function. Surg Forum 30 : 442 – 443 , 1979 Stein SC, Shucart WA: Noninvasive test of cerebrospinal shunt function. Surg Forum 30: 442–443, 1979

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Giuseppe Cinalli, Christian Sainte-Rose, Paul Chumas, Michel Zerah, Francis Brunelle, Guillaume LOT, Alain Pierre-Kahn and Dominique Renier

Object. The goal of this study was to analyze the types of failure and long-term efficacy of third ventriculostomy in children.

Methods. The authors retrospectively analyzed clinical data obtained in 213 children affected by obstructive triventricular hydrocephalus who were treated by third ventriculostomy between 1973 and 1997. There were 120 boys and 93 girls. The causes of the hydrocephalus included: aqueductal stenosis in 126 cases; toxoplasmosis in 23 cases, pineal, mesencephalic, or tectal tumor in 42 cases; and other causes in 22 cases. In 94 cases, the procedure was performed using ventriculographic guidance (Group I) and in 119 cases by using endoscopic guidance (Group II). In 19 cases (12 in Group I and seven in Group II) failure was related to the surgical technique. Three deaths related to the technique were observed in Group I. For the remaining patients, Kaplan—Meier survival analysis showed a functioning third ventriculostomy rate of 72% at 6 years with a mean follow-up period of 45.5 months (range 4 days–17 years). No significant differences were found during long-term follow up between the two groups. In Group I, a significantly higher failure rate was seen in children younger than 6 months of age, but this difference was not observed in Group II. Thirty-eight patients required reoperation (21 in Group I and 17 in Group II) because of persistent or recurrent intracranial hypertension. In 29 patients shunt placement was necessary. In nine patients in whom there was radiologically confirmed obstruction of the stoma, the third ventriculostomy was repeated; this was successful in seven cases. Cine phase-contrast (PC) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies were performed in 15 patients in Group I at least 10 years after they had undergone third ventriculostomy (range 10–17 years, median 14.3 years); this confirmed long-term patency of the stoma in all cases.

Conclusions. Third ventriculostomy effectively controls obstructive triventricular hydrocephalus in more than 70% of children and should be preferred to placement of extracranial cerebrospinal shunts in this group of patients. When performed using ventriculographic guidance, the technique has a higher mortality rate and a higher failure rate in children younger than 6 months of age and is, therefore, no longer preferred. When third ventriculostomy is performed using endoscopic guidance, the same long-term results are achieved in children younger than 6 months of age as in older children and, thus, patient age should no longer be considered as a contraindication to using the technique. Delayed failures are usually secondary to obstruction of the stoma and often can be managed by repeating the procedure. Midline sagittal T2-weighted MR imaging sequences combined with cine PC MR imaging flow measurements provide a reliable tool for diagnosis of aqueductal stenosis and for ascertaining the patency of the stoma during follow-up evaluation.

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Giuseppe Cinalli, Christian Sainte-Rose, Paul Chumas, Michel Zerah, Francis Brunelle, Guillaume Lot, Alain Pierre-Kahn and Dominique Renier

Object

The goal of this study was to analyze the types of failure and long-term efficacy of third ventriculostomy in children.

Methods

The authors retrospectively analyzed clinical data obtained in 213 children affected by obstructive triventricular hydrocephalus who were treated by third ventriculostomy between 1973 and 1997. There were 120 boys and 93 girls. The causes of the hydrocephalus included: aqueductal stenosis in 126 cases; toxoplasmosis in 23 cases, pineal, mesencephalic, or tectal tumor in 42 cases; and other causes in 22 cases. In 94 cases, the procedure was performed using ventriculographic guidance (Group I) and in 119 cases by using endoscopic guidance (Group II). In 19 cases (12 in Group I and seven in Group II) failure was related to the surgical technique. Three deaths related to the technique were observed in Group I. For the remaining patients, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a functioning third ventriculostomy rate of 72% at 6 years with a mean follow-up period of 45.5 months (range 4 days-17 years). No significant differences were found during long-term follow up between the two groups. In Group I, a significantly higher failure rate was seen in children younger than 6 months of age, but this difference was not observed in Group II. Thirty-eight patients required reoperation (21 in Group I and 17 in Group II) because of persistent or recurrent intracranial hypertension. In 29 patients shunt placement was necessary. In nine patients in whom there was radiologically confirmed obstruction of the stoma, the third ventriculostomy was repeated; this was successful in seven cases. Cine phase-contrast (PC) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies were performed in 15 patients in Group I at least 10 years after they had undergone third ventriculostomy (range 10–17 years, median 14.3 years); this confirmed long-term patency of the stoma in all cases.

Conclusions

Third ventriculostomy effectively controls obstructive triventricular hydrocephalus in more than 70% of children and should be preferred to placement of extracranial cerebrospinal shunts in this group of patients. When performed using ventriculographic guidance, the technique has a higher mortality rate and a higher failure rate in children younger than 6 months of age and is, therefore, no longer preferred. When third ventriculostomy is performed using endoscopic guidance, the same long-term results are achieved in children younger than 6 months of age as in older children and, thus, patient age should no longer be considered as a contraindication to using the technique. Delayed failures are usually secondary to obstruction of the stoma and often can be managed by repeating the procedure. Midline sagittal T2-weighted MR imaging sequences combined with cine PC MR imaging flow measurements provide a reliable tool for diagnosis of aqueductal stenosis and for ascertaining the patency of the stoma during follow-up evaluation.

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Kuniaki Nakahara and Satoru Shimizu

using AIS catheters, but we hope that they will include babies younger than 6 months of age in their continuing trials and, hopefully, provide the rationale for greater use of this epoch-making device. References 1 Bayston R , Lambert E : Duration of protective activity of cerebrospinal fluid shunt catheters impregnated with antimicrobial agents to prevent bacterial catheter-related infection . J Neurosurg 87 : 245 – 251 , 1997 2 Pople IK , Bayston R , Hayward RD : Infection of cerebrospinal shunts in infants: a study of etiological factors

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Torstein R. Meling

-assisted Paedi-Gav valve in the treatment of pediatric hydrocephalus . Pediatr Neurosurg 41 : 8 – 14 , 2005 2 Pollack IF , Albright AL , Adelson PD : Hakim-Medos Investigator Group : A randomized, controlled study of a programmable shunt valve versus a conventional valve for patients with hydrocephalus . Neurosurgery 45 : 1399 – 1411 , 1999 3 Tuli S , Drake J , Lawless J , Wigg M , Lamberti-Pasculli M : Risk factors for repeated cerebrospinal shunt failures in pediatric patients with hydrocephalus . J Neurosurg 92 : 31 – 38 , 2000