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R. A. Groat, W. F. Windle and H. W. Magoun

was characterized as a condition in which brain-stem centers are inert to reflex activation although they themselves may be in a state of stimulation. Denny-Brown and Russell had the opportunity to observe an intact unanesthetized monkey which was rendered unconscious in the course of an experiment with a model bomb shelter. Percussion injury sufficient to stun the animal abolished the corneal reflex although a lesser injury did not. Experimentation on cats formed the chief basis for the conclusions of Walker, Kollros and Case, 6 but some monkeys were used and

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Unusual Size and Extension of a Pituitary Adenoma

Case Report of a Chromophobe Tumour with Unusually Extensive Compression of the Base of the Brain, and Review of the Literature on the Pathways of Extension of These Tumours

James C. White and Shields Warren

chromophobe cells are not very bright (Sosman 12 ). With continued growth progressive blindness may be unavoidable, but surgical intervention will not become imperative before the advent of obstructive hydrocephalus. Ventricular drainage by catheter passed beneath the scalp from the posterior horn of a lateral ventricle to the cisterna magna, as described by Torkildsen, 13 can then be used as a palliative procedure. After this operation White and Michelsen 17 have found that patients with inoperable brain-stem tumours may live in relative comfort for a period of months to

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W. F. Windle, W. A. Rambach Jr., M. I. Robert de Ramirez De Arellano, R. A. Groat and R. F. Becker

tracts of the brain of the experimental animals had not been disturbed. Special search was made throughout the brainstem nuclei which had shown marked cytological alteration 6 days after concussion. No cell changes whatsoever were encountered in the red nuclei, the vestibular nuclei or the cells of the reticular formation of the medulla oblongata. The parts of the brain that are said to be particularly susceptible to anoxia, such as layers III and V of the cerebrum and the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum, showed no visible structural changes. Ammon's horn was

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John E. Scarff and James L. Pool

. Psychiat., Chicago , 1944, 51: 213–215. 9. Mettler , F. A. Extensive unilateral cerebral removals in the primate: physiologic effects and resultant degeneration. J. comp. Neurol. , 1943 , 79 : 185 – 245 . Mettler , F. A. Extensive unilateral cerebral removals in the primate: physiologic effects and resultant degeneration. J. comp. Neurol. , 1943, 79: 185–245. 10. Mettler , F. A. Physiologic consequences and anatomic degenerations following lesions of the primate brain-stem: plantar and patellar reflexes

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Radical Surgery and Penicillin in Brain Abscess

A Method of Treatment in One Stage with Special Reference to the Cure of Three Thoracogenic Cases

Jacques LeBeau

and brain-stem pressure. A large blunt needle is used to feel more readily if there is or is not a capsule. When the abscess is located it is tapped and the pus removed. It will often come more freely by aspiration. Penicillin (10,000 or 20,000 units) is instilled into the abscess cavity, and the organisms are identified. Subsequently three situations may be anticipated. (1) The abscess yields a fair quantity of pus (e.g., 10 cc.). Usually, with penicillin, the patient will improve enough to be able to wait for the formation of a capsule, sometimes after several

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Cerebral Swelling

Histopathology, Classification and Clinical Significance of Brain Edema

I. Mark Scheinker

. Herniation of the brain. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat., Chicago , 1920, 4: 387–400. 14. Moore , M. T. , and Stern , K. Vascular lesions in the brain-stem and occipital lobe occurring in association with brain tumours. Brain , 1938 , 61 : 70 – 98 . Moore , M. T., and Stern , K. Vascular lesions in the brain-stem and occipital lobe occurring in association with brain tumours. Brain , 1938, 61: 70–98. 15. Perret , G. E. , and Kernohan , J. W. Histopathologie changes of the brain caused by intracranial tumors

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Elizabeth Caroline Crosby

commissure, which is not shown in the figure. No known fiber paths reach the superior colliculus from those portions of areas 18 and 19 concerned with horizontal deviation of the eyes. These portions discharge instead, as indicated for area 19 in Fig. 6 , through a descending cortico-tegmental system which proceeds caudalward through the brainstem, probably with some synapse in course, to decussate and then terminate in the contralateral nucleus abducens ( Fig. 6 ). Near its termination in nucleus abducens the cortico-tegmental tract ( Fig. 6 ) lies near the cortico

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Oscar Sugar

adding to their walls, forming the telangiectases which are often found in the brainstem. Most of these dilated spaces are incidental findings at autopsy, but at least one case of rupture of such spaces has been reported (Michael and Levin 14 ). We have had one case in which enormous vascular spaces larger than than the aqueduct appear to have been responsible for partial occlusion of the aqueduct, leading to obstructive hydrocephalus, and one has been reported by Carpenter and Dillard. 4 Angiograms of such telangiectases have not yet been carried out. However

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Moses Ashkenazy, Loyal Davis and John Martin

tube on or even slightly below Reid's base line, with the reading part of the tube centered on the malar bone, or external auditory meatus (Areas F7, 8, and C7, 8 in Fig. 2 ) to pick up the radiations from the anterior temporal lobe, hippocampus, pituitary, brainstem, and deep temporal lobe. High concentrations here will determine the presence of such lesions, despite the fact that the symmetrical readings will be equal, since the tube will be equidistant from the center in such midline lesions. This finding may also be true in lateralizing lesions that are

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Howard Freedman

the attitude seen in those animals and that accompanying certain diseases in man. In 1921, Jefferson 11 reported 2 cases of epidural hematomas wherein bilateral extensor rigidity was observed prior to death. No gross alterations in the brain stems were found, and the conclusion was drawn that physiological interruption of brain-stem pathways had resulted from alteration in the circulation to their area. With this conclusion we are in agreement. Additional articles 6, 26, 27, 28 describing the decerebrate attitude in man appeared, and the presence of hemorrhage