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Erhard W. Lang, Magdalena Kasprowicz, Peter Smielewski, Edgar Santos, John Pickard and Marek Czosnyka

, Santos. Approved the final version of the manuscript on behalf of all authors: Lang. Statistical analysis: Kasprowicz, Smielewski, Czosnyka. Administrative/technical/material support: Pickard. Study supervision: Pickard, Czosnyka. Supplemental Information Previous Presentation This work was presented at the 15th International Conference on Intracranial Pressure and Brain Monitoring, which was held in Singapore, November 6–10, 2013. References 1 Aaslid R , Newell DW , Stooss R , Sorteberg W , Lindegaard KF : Assessment of cerebral

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Sumeet Vadera, Amar R. Marathe, Jorge Gonzalez-Martinez and Dawn M. Taylor

I n a subset of patients with medically intractable focal epilepsy, invasive brain monitoring is recommended to best identify the location of the epileptogenic zone. These patients are admitted to an Epilepsy Monitoring Unit (usually between 3 and 15 days) to await seizure occurrence to better localize the epileptic focus. 33 Subdural grids are thin flexible sheets or strips of electrodes and are the most commonly used electrodes for invasive epilepsy monitoring in the US. Alternatively, SEEG uses “depth electrodes” consisting of very thin (approximately

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Thomas Datzmann, Thomas Kapapa, Angelika Scheuerle, Oscar McCook, Tamara Merz, Sarah Unmuth, Andrea Hoffmann, René Mathieu, Simon Mayer, Uwe Max Mauer, Stefan Röhrer, Deniz Yilmazer-Hanke, Peter Möller, Benedikt Lukas Nussbaum, Enrico Calzia, Michael Gröger, Clair Hartmann, Peter Radermacher and Martin Wepler

ASDH-induced brain injury in human-sized pigs comprising bilateral, multimodal brain monitoring integrating standard intensive care, intermittent neurological assessment, measurement of blood biomarkers of brain injury as well as postmortem morphological and immunohistochemical analyses. 5 Methods After obtaining approval from the local Animal Care Committee and the Federal Authorities for Animal Research, we performed the experiments in adherence with the National Institutes of Health Guidelines on the Use of Laboratory Animals and the European Union “Directive 2010

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Bart Depreitere, Fabian Güiza, Greet Van den Berghe, Martin U. Schuhmann, Gottlieb Maier, Ian Piper and Geert Meyfroidt

, enable autoregulation-steered CPP management without investment in additional equipment. Methods Data The Brain Monitoring with Information Technology Research Group (BrainIT) database 17 , 22 collected information from 264 consecutive TBI patients with ICP monitoring admitted to 22 neuro-ICUs in 11 European countries between March 2003 and July 2005. Among others, baseline risk factors, minute-by-minute ICP and MABP monitoring data, and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score at 6 months were registered. Complete data on ICP and MABP measurements for the first 48

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Paul Vespa

Intensive care of the patient with traumatic brain injury centers on control of intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). The optimal CPP by definition delivers an adequate supply of blood and oxygen to meet the metabolic demands of brain tissue. A great deal of controversy exists regarding the optimal CPP value, with disparate studies providing conflicting evidence for the use of supraphysiological CPP values. No study that accurately assesses the efficacy of normal CPP compared with elevated CPP has been performed, but several studies demonstrate that a CPP threshold exists on an individual basis for patients with TBI. The use of brain monitors of cerebral metabolism and oxygen supply may assist the clinician in the selection of the optimal CPP for an individual patient.

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Letter to the Editor

Cerebellar mutism

Mostafa El Khashab and Farideh Nejat

brainstem invasion and involvement of the cerebellomedullary angle could be significant factors associated with CMS in this group of children. Postoperative imaging confirming cerebellar edema and middle and superior cerebellar peduncle edema were found significantly more often in patients with CMS. Aggressive surgical technique and radical resection were not statistically significant factors. The authors proposed routine cranial nerve and brain monitoring, less aggressive retraction, and the avoidance of ultrasonic surgical aspiration, which might be associated with a

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David Michaeli and Z. Harry Rappaport

. Michaeli and Rappaport are directors of Intamedics and have a financial interest in the company. References 1. Alperin N , Lee SB , Raksin BP , et al : Noninvasive ICP measurements using magnetic resonance imaging , in Eleventh International Symposium on Intracranial Pressure and Brain Monitoring. Cambridge, UK : ISICP , 2000 , p 37 (Abstract) Alperin N, Lee SB, Raksin BP, et al: Noninvasive ICP measurements using magnetic resonance imaging, in Eleventh International Symposium on Intracranial Pressure and Brain

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Oral Presentations

2010 AANS Annual Meeting Philadelphia, Pennsylvania May 1–5, 2010

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Martin M. Mortazavi, R. Shane Tubbs, Daniel Harmon and W. Jerry Oakes

area postrema: a brain monitor and integrator of systemic autonomic state . Neuroscientist 14 : 182 – 194 , 2008 14 Szilagyi JE , Ferrario CM : Central opiate system modulation of the area postrema pressor pathway . Hypertension 3 : 313 – 317 , 1981 15 Tian B , Hartle DK : Cardiovascular effects of NMDA and MK-801 infusion at area postrema and mNTS in rat . Pharmacol Biochem Behav 49 : 489 – 495 , 1994

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Patrick W. McCormick, Melville Stewart, Gary Lewis, Manuel Dujovny and James I. Ausman

, De Marchis C, Giannini I, et al: Cerebral blood volume and hemoglobin oxygen saturation monitoring in neonatal brain by near IR spectroscopy. Adv Exp Med Biol 200: 203–211, 1986 10. Giannini I , Ferrari M , Carpi A , et al : Rat brain monitoring by near-infrared spectroscopy: an assessment of possible clinical significance. Physiol Chem Phys 14 : 295 – 305 , 1982 Giannini I, Ferrari M, Carpi A, et al: Rat brain monitoring by near-infrared spectroscopy: an assessment of possible clinical significance. Physiol Chem