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Tommi K. Korhonen, Sami Tetri, Jukka Huttunen, Antti Lindgren, Jaakko M. Piitulainen, Willy Serlo, Pekka K. Vallittu and Jussi P. Posti

. All patients underwent follow-up from the CP operation until bone flap removal, death, or December 31, 2015. The CP outcome was classified as autograft survival or all-cause bone flap removal as of the last follow-up date. A subgroup analysis was performed for patients with clinical BFR; outcomes were divided into nonresorbed bone flap versus CP removal or refixation due to BFR. The time from CP to BFR was calculated as the time between the CP and the head CT scan that confirmed the presence of BFR, except for one patient, whose BFR was discovered during a wound

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Takashiro Ohyama, Yoshichika Kubo, Hiroo Iwata and Waro Taki

V arious methods have been examined to promote anterior cervical interbody fusion since anterior cervical approaches were introduced by Cloward 8 and Smith and Robinson. 31 These techniques enable stabilization of the cervical spine and preservation of the natural alignment. In most of these procedures, autograft bone has been used as the fusion material. The rate of nonunion in one-level fusion ranges from 5 to 20%, but higher rates of pseudarthrosis have been reported in cases of multilevel fusion. 3, 5, 29, 37 The use of autogenetic iliac crest grafts

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Julio Urrutia, Nicolas Thumm, Daniel Apablaza, Felipe Pizarro, Alejandro Zylberberg and Felipe Quezada

P osterolateral spinal fusion is used in the treatment of different spinal disorders, including deformities, infections, traumatic injuries, tumors, and degenerative conditions. This procedure has been associated with significant non-union rates; 49 , 53 although pedicle screw-based instrumentation has partially decreased the incidence of this complication. 10 , 42 Autograft, usually harvested from the iliac crest, is the most successful and consistent bone grafting option, but it is associated with donor site morbidity (including local pain, infection

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Frédéric Schils, Benedict Rilliet and Michael Payer

recently, the concept of postfusion accelerated degeneration of adjacent disc levels has stimulated the development of cervical disc prostheses; however, current prospective studies (maximal 2-year follow-up duration) have not shown results superior to those of ACDF, and prospective comparative studies are lacking. 11 , 12 The present study was undertaken to evaluate prospectively the results obtained in patients undergoing the implantation of an. empty CFCFC compared with iliac crest autograft after single-level ACD for the treatment of compressive one

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Jakub Godzik, Vijay M. Ravindra, Wilson Z. Ray, Meic H. Schmidt, Erica F. Bisson and Andrew T. Dailey

O ccipitocervical fusion (OCF) can be used to correct joint instability caused by trauma, rheumatological conditions, infection, neoplasm, or congenital conditions. 10 Although nonrigid constructs have been used in OCF, rigid fixation involving screws with plate or rods in conjunction with sublaminar wiring and bone grafting is biomechanically superior to external immobilization. 13 , 17 , 29 , 45 Although autograft provides the ideal substrate for bony fusion after posterior cervical arthrodesis, the associated rate of significant donor-site morbidity

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Tobias Pitzen, Juay Seng Tan, Marcel F. Dvorak, Charles Fisher and Thomas Oxland

restore and maintain disc height; 2) to stabilize the segment immediately after surgery; and 3) to promote bony fusion. To promote bony fusion, filling a cage with either nonstructural bone autograft or bone substitute is necessary. Using a bone substitute to fill the aperture of a cage is associated with additional costs. An autologous bone graft harvested from the iliac crest obviates the benefits of using a cage to avoid donor site morbidity. 3 , 4 , 6 , 9 , 13 , 14 Hypertrophic anterior marginal osteophytes are often removed from the adjacent vertebrae as a part

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Ole Osgaard and Jakob Husby

, numerous reports of excellent results have been published, mainly comprising the upper limb. Samii and Wallenborn 15, 18, 19 reported a total of seven cases of secondary femoral nerve repair with autografts, but gave no details of the recovery. In one recent case 17 there was complete recovery of function, 1 year after a secondary repair with sural nerve autografts, of a total femoral nerve lesion in the groin. Kline 7 reported three cases of femoral nerve lesions, treated only with neurolysis; two patients had reduction of their preoperative pain, and in only one did

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Thomas G. Lowe and Jeffrey D. Coe

tamp. In multilevel cases, crushed cancellous allograft as well as autograft can be used for this step. Two Hydrosorb resorbable polymer implants packed with autograft are inserted into the disc space ( Fig. 4 upper ). The first device is inserted into the posterior interbody interspace and maneuvered across the disc space to the contralateral side by using an angled insertion device as well as straight and angled impactors ( Fig. 4 lower ). The second device is inserted into the ipsilateral posterior disc space ( Fig. 5 ); then, distraction is released. Fig

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R. M. Crowell and M. G. Yasargil

S ince Jacobson and Suarez 9–13 adapted the operating microscope to the surgery of small vessels in 1960–1962, it has become clear that microvascular surgery is rich in research possibilities 1–3, 5–8, 14, 21, 24–26, 29 and clinical applications. 4, 15–19, 22, 23, 27, 28 We are reporting the successful application of microsurgical techniques to problems of small vessel autograft transplantation. Methods and Materials Microvascular procedures were carried out under a Zeiss binocular operating microscope. Instruments included “spring handle” needle

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Jeffrey M. Toth, Mei Wang, Joshua Lawson, Jeffrey M. Badura and Kimberly Bailey DuBose

L umbar spine fusion is a commonly performed surgical procedure for patients with spinal instability and/or other spinal pathologies, often with concomitant back pain. It is estimated that more than 400,000 spinal arthrodeses were performed in the United States per year in 2008. 13 Most spinal arthrodesis procedures consist of a bone graft and/or a bone graft substitute in conjunction with posterior instrumentation consisting of pedicle screws and rods. Although autograft is frequently used as the bone graft for spinal fusion, it has several limitations